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《最新简明英语口译教程》

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  前言

  进入21世纪以来,我国正式加入世贸组织,北京申办2008年奥运会成功、上海申办2010年世博会成功,我国的国际地位空前提高,在各种国际事务中的作用越来越重要。我国与世界各国在政治、军事、商贸、科技、文化、教育、卫生、体育等各个领域的交流与合作日趋频繁。来华投资、经商、旅游、访问、留学和参加各种国际会议的海外人士更是络绎不绝。21世纪的中国正在大步走向世界,中国已成为世界最为关注的焦点之一。

  为了迎接新世纪的挑战与机遇,进一步扩大我国对外交流与合作,21世纪的中国比过去任何时候都更加需要大批优秀的口译人才。

  英语是对外交流中使用最多最广最为重要的国际通用语言。口译又是最直接最便捷最普遍的口头交际手段。为国家培养大批合格的口译人才是大专院校的当务之急,而一部时效性、针对性、实用性强的口译教材对于培养高素质的口译人才是至关重要的。本教材正是为适应这一新的发展形势和需要而编写的。

  本教材是编者在长期从事口译实践、教学和科研中所积累的丰富经验和资料,同时,结合国内外形势的发展,不断收集、更新、补充新材料,反复实践,总结提高的基础上编写而成的。

  本教材的特点是:

  一.题材广泛,内容丰富,实用性强。本教材以我国对外交流与合作及口译工作的实际为出发点,集口译理论、技巧和实践为一体。内容主要包括口译的基本理论、方法和技巧,涉外工作的礼仪和程序等,重点是口译工作所涉及的各种话题的英汉互译。这些专题材料主要选自国内外中英文报刊和有关网站的最新资料。题材广泛,内容丰富、涵盖了我国对外交流中可能涉及到的各种话题,旨在通过大量的英汉互译实践,使学生掌握口译的基本理论和技巧,熟悉涉外工作的礼仪和程序,获得相关的知识,培养他们在对外交流的各种场合中灵活运用各种口译技巧,进行英汉互译的实践能力,以便他们将来一走上工作岗位就能很快胜任口译工作。

  二.英译汉、汉译英并重,双向训练同步进行。口译教学不同于书面翻译教学,可采取英译汉、汉译英分阶段进行。口头交际是一种双向交际活动;口译通常是在两种语言连续交替转换模式中进行。因此,口译教学采取英汉互译,双向训练同步进行为好。本教材的总体框架就是根据这一原则设计和编写的。口译实践是全书的主体部分。这一部分的每个单元都选用了英译汉和汉译英两种训练材料。同时,每个单元在实践训练材料之前还选编了两篇与本单元专题相关的英语阅读材料作为口译训练前的准备材料。学生可以通过这些材料获得更多与本专题相关的知识和信息,加深对中英文原文的理解。同时可以扩大英语词汇,学习有关的英语表达方式,以便通过两种语言的对比,互相借鉴,各取所长,提高英汉互译能力。

  本教材分两大部分,十八个单元。第一部分三个单元。第一单元着重介绍口译的基本理论,包括口译的产生、发展、特点、标准、类型、过程及口译人员的基本素质要求等。第二、三单元集中介绍口译的一些基本方法和技巧,包括直译法、反译法、意译法、增减译法、口译笔记及各种数字的口译及习语、引语的口译。另外,第二、三单元在介绍了每一种口译技巧之后都附有相应的英汉互译练习及练习参考答案。在使用本教材时,教师可根据教材顺序,集中一段时间进行口译理论和技巧教学,着重对学生进行单项口译技巧训练,使他们通过口译实践尽快掌握口译的基本理论、方法和技巧,闯过口译中经常遇到的几个难点,为在后面的专题口译训练中能灵活机动、综合运用各种口译技巧,顺利进行英汉互译打好基础。教师也可视具体情况,将第一部分的内容分别融入第二部分的每个专题口译实践之中进行讲解和训练,这样可以把理论与实践、单项操练与综合运用结合起来,使学生在实践中逐步掌握各种口译技巧。

  第二部分是本教材的主体部分,内容包括对外交流中经常涉及到的以下十五个专题:外事往来、礼仪讲话、旅游观光、人物访谈、现代教育、文化交流、经济发展、商贸往来、人口与健康、环境保护、妇女儿童、社会生活、科技成果、政治外交和国际会议。每个专题选用两篇英译汉,两篇汉译英实践材料,其内容尽量覆盖各专题的方方面面。另外,每个专题选用两篇与本专题相关的英语阅读材料,这些材料有些是英文原版,有些是选自我国对外公开发表的英文材料,目的是为学生提供更多有关该专题的知识、信息、词语和表达方式。在使用本教材时,教师也可以从这两篇阅读材料中节选部分片段作为翻译练习之用,这样可以把听、说、读、译有机地结合起来,既训练学生的口头表达能力、口译实践能力,又增加知识,扩大词汇,提高英语综合运用能力。此外,每个单元后面都附有该专题口译实践材料的汉英参考译文。这些译文大多选自国内外中英文报刊和网站,(个别地方有所删减或变动),有些为编者所译,仅供教学参考。

  本教材适用于各大专院校英语专业学生的口译课教学,也可供从事口译、外事、外贸、旅游等涉外人员及有较好基础的口译自学者使用。

  本教材在编写过程中,参考了大量国内外有关著作和资料,(参考文献目录附于书后),在此谨向有关作者、译者表示诚挚的谢意。

  本书的编写得到西北大学外语学院英语系主任冯伟年教授和世界图书出版公司李丹同志的大力支持。冯教授在百忙之中对书稿进行了认真的审校,并提出了宝贵的修改意见。在此,笔者表示衷心的感谢。

  由于编者的水平有限,疏漏和错误在所难免,恳请专家、同行和使用者批评指正。

  编者

  2003年3月于西北大学

  

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2007-12-08 16:36:55 来自青青岛社区 法律声明 回复 | 引用 | 编辑 | 举报
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目    录
Contents

第一部分    Part One
口译概述    Introduction to Interpretation
第一单元  Unit 1
基本理论  Basic Theories
一、        口译的产生和发展   
二、口译的特点      
三、口译的标准      
四、口译的类型      
五、口译的过程        
六、译员的基本素质要求
第二单元         Unit 2                 
方法与技巧(1)  Methods and Skills (1)
一、直译法            
二、反译法        
三、意译法         
四、增减译法      
五、口译练习         
六、练习参考答案   
第三单元        Unit 3
方法与技巧(2) Methods and Skills (2)
一、口译笔记      
二、数字的口译      
三、习语、引语的口译
四、口译练习      
五、练习参考答案     
第二部分    Part Two
口译实践    Interpretation Practice
第四单元   Unit 4
外事往来   Exchange of Visits
I.  阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1  Cruising Down the Thames
第二篇 Passage 2  Touring the Palace Museum  

II. 口译实践(英汉交替口译)
第一篇 Passage 1
第二篇 Passage 2
        第三篇 Passage 3
第四篇 Passage 4
III. 参考译文
第五单元    Unit 5
礼仪讲话    Ceremonial Speech
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1  Remarks By U.S. Commerce Secretary Don Evans
第二篇 Passage 2  Here is the World Organization Created to Serve All People
II. 口译实践
第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E―C)
第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)
第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3 (C―E)
第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)
III. 参考译文
第六单元   Unit 6
旅游观光   Tour and Sightseeing
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1  A Glimps of London
第二篇 Passage 2  Sightseeing in Beijing
II. 口译实践
第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E―C)
第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)
第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3 (C―E)
第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)
III. 参考译文
第七单元   Unit 7
人物访谈   Interview
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1  President Bush Answers Students’ Questions at Qinghua
第二篇 Passage 2  Premier Zhu Answers Questions by the Press
II. 口译实践(英汉交替口译)        
第一篇 Passage 1
第二篇 Passage 2
        第三篇 passage 3
第四篇 Passage 4
III. 参考译文
第八单元  Unit 8
现代教育  Modern Education
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1  One Eye on Homework----the Other on E-mail, TV, Games…
第二篇 Passage 2  Beijing University
II. 口译实践
第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E―C)
第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)
第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3 (C―E)
第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)
III. 参考译文 Reference Version
第九单元   Unit 9
文化交流   Cultural Exchange
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1 The American Way: Moral Values
第二篇 Passage 2 The Spread and Influence of Confucius Teachings in Western Countries
II. 口译实践
第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E―C)
第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)
第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3 (C―E)
第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)
III. 参考译文
第十单元   Unit 10
经济发展   Economic Development
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1  Nike, from Small Beginnings to World Giant
第二篇 Passage 2  China’s Development in the Last 20 Years
II. 口译实践
第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E―C)
第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)
第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3 (C―E)
第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)
III. 参考译文
第十一单元   Unit 11
商贸往来     Business and Trade
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1  The World Trade Organization
第二篇 Passage 2  Foreign Investment in Beijing
II. 口译实践
第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E―C)
第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)
第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3 (C―E)
第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)
III. 参考译文
第十二单元   Unit 12
人口与健康   Population and Health
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1  The World’s Population
第二篇 Passage 2  New Law Supports Family Planning
II. 口译实践
第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E―C)
第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)
第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3 (C―E)
第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)
III. 参考译文

第十三单元   Unit 13
环境保护     Environmental Protection
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1  Sound Economy Tied to Health and Environment
第二篇 Passage 2  The Three Gorges Project
II. 口译实践
第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E―C)
第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)
第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3 (C―E)
第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)
III. 参考译文

第十四单元   Unit 14
妇女儿童     Women and Children
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1  Women in Developing Countries
第二篇 Passage 2  Obesity: A Warning to Chinese Children
II. 口译实践
第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E―C)
第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)
第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3 (C―E)
第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)
III. 参考译文
第十五单元  Unit 15
社会生活    Social Life
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1  Love Affairs Bloom on the Internet
第二篇 Passage 2  A New-new Generation
II. 口译实践
第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E―C)
第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)
第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3 (C―E)
第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)
III. 参考译文
第十六单元  Unit 16  
科技成果    Scientific and Technological Achievements
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1  They Never Imagined…
第二篇 Passage 2  Thirty Years of Development in Space Technology
II. 口译实践
第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E―C)
第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)
第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3 (C―E)
第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)
III. 参考译文
第十七单元   Unit 17
政治和外交     Politics and Diplomacy
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1
第二篇 Passage 2
II. 口译实践
第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E―C)
第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)
第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3 (C―E)
第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)
III. 参考译文
第十八单元  Unit 18
国际会议    International Conference
I. 阅读材料
第一篇 Passage 1
第二篇 Passage 2
II. 口译实践
第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E―C)
第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)
第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3 (C―E)
第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)
III. 参考译文

2007-12-08 16:55:42 来自青青岛社区
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第一部分      Part One
口译概述      Introduction to Interpretation

第一单元      Unit 1        
基本理论      Basic Theories
口译是人类在相互交往中通过两种语言的转换,准确、快速地传递信息,交流思想,讨论问题或解决问题的一种口头交际活动,是人类在跨文化,跨民族的交往活动中所依赖的一种基本交际工具。

一、口译的产生和发展

同笔译一样,口译有着悠久的历史。自从使用不同语言的人类相互交往以来就产生了口译。从原始社会部落群体之间的相互交往到古代不同疆域、不同民族之间商贸、文化、技艺的相互交流,从古代不同宗教的传播和东西方文明的交流到人类一次次的环球旅行和移民,这一切都离不开口译的媒介与桥梁作用;同时,也正是人类这些跨文化、跨民族、跨疆域的活动才大大促进了口译的发展。
进入20世纪,各种国际组织陆续出现,各国之间的交往日趋频繁,口译的作用也显得更加重要。特别是第一次世界大战后,1919年的“巴黎和会”上,同声传译的首次使用开创了口译史上的里程碑。由于同声传译在国际会议上显示了极大的优越性,因而得到了推广和应用。第二次世界大战后,联合国的诞生及其各专门机构的相继成立,世界各种全球性,区域性的政治、经贸组织的增多、大大促进了各国之间的相互交流。一批专门为国际会议培养高级译员的翻译学院在德国、瑞士、法国和美国应运而生。1953年“国际会议译员协会”的成立,标志着口译人员社会地位的确立。口译作为一门语言艺术开始兴旺起来,并成为一个令人羡慕和追求的高尚职业。
21世纪是一个以知识经济和信息革命为特点的全球一体化时代,在这个新世纪,民族要强大,经济要发展,社会要进步,更是离不开国家与国家、地区与地区、集团与集团、个人与个人之间政治、军事、经贸、文化、教育、科技、卫生、体育等多种领域的交流与合作。当今世界,各种关系到人类前途命运的重大问题,诸如和平与冲突、发展与环境、富裕与贫困、健康与疾病、幸福与灾祸等主要是通过各国之间相互接触、协商讨论、谈判甚至辩论来消除障碍、化解矛盾、求得共识、达到相互沟通、谅解与合作,推动人类社会的发展与进步。这一切活动都离不开口译人员的辛勤劳动。正如一位西方专家所说的那样:会议译员是国际交流中真正的催化剂,全靠从事这种行业的名不见经传的一批小人物才使各种国际会议有可能进行。由于有了他们,世界才变得稍稍安全一些。
我国是世界四大文明古国之一。据历史记载,口译始于三千年前的周代。后来的汉唐盛世开辟了闻名遐迩的丝绸之路,中国的商贾、技艺足迹遍布万里之遥的亚欧诸国。明代的郑和七下南洋,把华夏文明远播到东南亚各国。中国人民同世界各国人民的交往源远流长。在这些重大的跨民族、跨区域的交际活动中,一代代口译人员功不可灭。
新中国成立后,我国的国际地位不断提高,与外界的交往更加频繁。为满足国家对外交流的需要,从20世纪中期开始, 一批外语院校相继成立,为国家培养了一批批翻译人才。20世纪70年代,随着我国在联合国合法席位的恢复,中国在各种国际事务中发挥着越来越重要的作用。尤其是改革开放以来,中国发生的翻天覆地的变化引起了全世界的广泛关注。许多世界知名跨国公司纷纷来华投资经营;大批外国游客涌向中国的旅游胜地;各类专家学者云集中国,从事讲学研究;各种国际会议、学术研讨会、文化、体育活动频频在华举行。因此,国家需要大量口译人才,为国家培养各类优秀口译人才已成为各外语院校的当务之急。
今天,人类已经跨入21世纪。我国人民正在坚定不移,信心百倍地向着社会主义现代化建设更新、更高的目标前进。进入新世纪的第一年――2001年,中国就迎来了令人振奋的两大胜利―北京申奥成功和中国加入世贸组织。10月份中国在上海成功地举办了亚太地区经合组织会议。2002年上海申办2010年世博会获得成功。中国已成为全世界最为关注的焦点之一。展望21世纪,中国将是一个经济高速发展、社会全面进步、对外更加开放、与外界交流空前频繁的国家。面对新世纪的挑战和机遇,为了让世界充分了解中国,向世界全面展现中华民族优秀文化的无限魅力,中国需要同各国进行更为广泛的合作与交流。因此,中国现在比以往任何时期都更加需要大批优秀的口译人才。21世纪是口译人才施展才华,大有作为的时代。这也是历史赋予我们的光荣而神圣的使命。

二、口译的特点

口译是一种特殊的语言交际过程,首先是速度快。口译的全过程,从语言信息的接收、解码、记忆、编码到输出只在短短的瞬间进行。译员一旦进入工作状态就像一台自动运转的机器,必须全神贯注、连续不断地进行语言信息的处理和转换工作。而且口译的效果往往是立竿见影、当场敲定。即使译员对前边口译的效果不够满意,也难以返工或更改。
口译是一项艰巨而紧张的脑力劳动。译员要面对各种意想不到的挑战,承受很大的思想压力。首先是无法完全预测交际双方的谈话内容,因而无从事先做充分的准备。其次,口译过程中译员随时可能遇到语言、知识、文化等方面的困难和障碍。另外,他们可能在各种气氛紧张的现场进行口译。因此,译员工作时必须精力充沛,思想高度集中,做到耳、眼、手、脑、口同时并用,既要迅速高效,又要准确无误,既要忠于原意,又要灵活应变。口译的确是一项极富挑战性的工作。
口译的这些特点和规律决定了口译与笔译有很大的区别。二者的差异主要有以下几点:

1. 工作方式不同。口译是从口头语言到口头语言的翻译。口头语言转瞬即逝,从听入信息到译出信息,译员只有短短几秒钟时间。特别是同声传译,口译和讲话几乎是同时进行的,真可谓“一言既出,驷马难追”,一旦出错,很难补救。口译中译员要在瞬息之间把获得的语言信息输入大脑,经过判断、处理,迅速转换成另一种语言,再准确、流畅地表达出来,使交谈双方达到沟通、交流之目的。译员必须独立地完成这一切,没有可能参考任何文件、资料,也没有可能求教于任何专家、学者。
然而,笔译则不同,笔译人员面对的是书面语言。他可以不受时间的限制,反复阅读、从容思考、充分理解原文,必要时还可借助各种工具书,反复推敲、仔细琢磨、方才下笔; 同时笔译人员可以使用各种修辞手段,对译文进行修改、润色; 还可以请教别人或与同行切磋,或请专家审校。总之,笔译工作者有较充分的时间对译文进行加工,使其精益求精,达到最佳境界。

2. 工作环境不同。口译人员直接面对各类听众。他们可能是国家元首、政局要员、各方面的专家、学者,或者是从事各种职业的各行各业的人。译员要在各种各样的场合工作:有礼节性的接见或宴请、有气氛比较宽松的观光旅游、有严肃正规的政治会晤、针锋相对的外交谈判,更有无法预料讲话人要说什么的即兴发言、辩论、记者招待会,或者是有数百听众的大会演说。口译是异常复杂而紧张的脑力劳动。口译人员特别是同声译员工作时承受着巨大的精神压力和心理负担。难怪有的联合国会议译员把他们翻译时所在的玻璃小间叫做“恐怖的秘室”。因此,口译人员需要良好的心理素质和身体素质。
相比之下,笔译人员却是在另一种环境中工作。他们的工作对象是看不见的广大读者,可以任意选择一个舒适、安静的环境,专心致志、从容不迫地工作。

3. 要求和标准不同。由于交际对象和工作环境的不同,口译和笔译的要求和标准也不相同。口译人员直接面对交际的双方,其任务是通过语言切换,传递信息,使双方达到交流思想和感情的目的。口译时,译员必须集中精力抓住说话人的中心意思,把话语所含信息完整、准确、及时地表达出来。他不可能也不必要把原话的每个词语和句子逐一不漏地译出,那样做反而会影响下一步的听译。因此,口译最重要的是传情达意,把说话人的意思和话语的效果表达出来。译语要口语化,简短明了、通俗易懂、准确、及时、通顺。
笔译的成果是永久性的作品,有广泛的读者。笔译要求忠于原文、语言规范、行文流畅、再现原文的风格和艺术魅力。为此,笔译工作者必须遵循书面语言规范和句法规则,选择确切的词语和表达方法,忠实、流畅、艺术地再现原作的内容、信息和风格。

三、口译的标准

关于翻译的标准,西方翻译理论家提出了“等效”,“等值”的原则,我国翻译家严复提出了“信、达、雅”的衡量标准。虽然翻译界对此有不同的解释,但多年来 “信、达、雅”的原则一直是衡量笔译质量的标准,也是我国广大翻译工作者从事笔译所遵循的基本原则。其实“信、达、雅”的原则也适应于口译,只是口译受工作条件和客观环境的限制,“信、达、雅”的侧重点有所不同而已。口译的性质和特点决定了口译的标准应为“准确、流利、迅速、易懂”。
准确是口译的最基本标准。准确就是“信”。在口译中,“信”就是忠实地传达说话人的原意,就是口译的信度。具体地说,在内容上,译员要全面完整、准确无误的传达谈话的议题、观点,涉及的事实、细节、数字、时间、地点等,不能有任何的疏漏和差错。准确是口译的生命线,是译员工作责任心和业务能力的集中表现。因为口译内容的范围很广,有涉及立场观点的政治会谈,有包括各种数字的经贸谈判。即使日常生活翻译也常常涉及具体的时间、地点或细节。因此,口译内容上的任何差错或失真,都可能造成政治上的原则性错误,经济上的重大损失或工作上的严重失误。这一切都是译员工作的严重失职。口译中,译员不可只顾速度而忽视口译的准确性。任何粗心大意,马虎从事的作风都可能造成难以挽回的影响。口译的准确性也表现在语言表达方面。在语言表达上译员要做到语音、语调正确,准确掌握词义、词性、词的变化与搭配,正确运用句型、时态、语气和衔接,做到语音、语调、词法、语法准确无误。因为译员语言表达上的任何错误都可能造成交际双方谈话内容上的含糊其辞,似是而非,甚至引起严重误解。这样的口译不可能真实地传达说话人的意愿,也不符合口译的准确原则。
口译的准确性还表现在风格上。译员要正确运用语态、语气、情态等,再现说话人的情感,情绪和口气,真正做到传情达意,再现说话人“原汁原味”的谈话风格。
流利是口头表达的基本要求,也是口译的另一重要标准。在口译中,“达”就是语言通达、通顺、流畅。口译要做到流利,一要“快”、二要“畅”。译员必须迅速、及时地把一方的话语信息传达给另一方,做到语速流畅、节奏适当、反映敏捷、出口利落。不能吞吞吐吐,慢条斯理。
易懂是指口译的语言要口语化,简洁明快、直截了当,符合译入语的表达方式,使人一听就懂。特别是汉译英时,一定要避免汉语式的英语,或“对号入座”式的“死译”,说出的英语使外国听众不知所云。当然,准确、流利 的口译是建立在译员对两种交际语言的技巧和文化知识熟练掌握及译员快速反应基础之上的。因此,打好两种语言的基本功,加强口译实践锻炼是译员获得良好口译效果的根本途径。

四、口译的类型
口译按其翻译形式可分为以下四类:
1. 交替翻译 (consecutive interpretation)
交替翻译是指译员在说话人每讲完几句或一段话后自然停顿时,当即译给听众的翻译方式。这种方式可以用于交际一方单向连续讲话的情况,也可以用于交际双方连续交替式的谈话,因此,也叫连续翻译或即席翻译。交替翻译是最常用的一种口译形式,口译人员的业务训练一般都是从交替翻译开始的。交替翻译主要用于交谈和演讲时的双语交际场合,如日常接见、宴请、会晤、谈判、讲课、演讲、记者招待会、旅游观光等活动。
2. 同声传译 (simultaneous interpretation)
同声传译是指译员在说话人讲话的同时边听边译的口译方式。使用这种方式,翻译和讲话几乎是同时进行的。同声传译是一种高效率、高难度的口译形式,是在熟练掌握交替翻译技巧的基础上经过特殊强化训练后才能达到的。同声传译主要用于各种国际会议和重要国际学术会议的翻译,因此,也叫会议翻译( conference interpretation )。目前,世界上百分之八、九十的国际会议都使用同声传译。这种翻译需要一定的设备。通常是发言人对着一个与传译室相连接的话筒讲话;译员在传译室里对着第二个话筒,把听到的讲话译成另一种语言;与会者通过耳机接收到译入语。如果听众是讲多种语言的,为使大家都跟上会议的进程,需要为每种语言各配备一名译员,增添传译室的传送线路,并在每个听众座位上都安上相应的可以选择不同语言的装置。
3. 耳语传译 (whispering interpretation)
耳语传译简称耳译,是指译员把听到的讲话内容连续不断地小声传译给身边听众的翻译方式。耳译也属于同声传译,所不同的是同声传译用于国际会议和国际学术会议的大会发言,而耳译则多用于小组讨论、观看文艺演出等场合的口译;耳译往往只针对一、两名听众。
4. 视阅传译 (sight interpretation)
视阅传译简称视译,是指译员看着事先准备好的原文讲稿或文件,用另一种语言直接连续不断地把讲稿译给听众的翻译方式。视译也属同声传译,是一种边看边译的特殊口译形式。
口译按其内容和文体也可分为:
交谈式口译,其范围包括一般性交谈、访谈、谈判等口译。
礼仪式口译,其范围包括礼宾迎送、欢迎词、告别词、宴会祝酒词、开幕词等的口译。
介绍型口译,其范围包括观光、导游、演讲等的口译。
会议口译,包括各种国际会议,学术交流会等的口译。
五、口译的过程
口译是一种跨文化的语言交际活动。交际双方是操不同语言,有不同文化背景的说话人和听话人。译员则是沟通交际双方的媒介和桥梁。口译又是一个紧张而复杂的思维过程。译员要在瞬息之间对接受到的语言信息进行分析、理解、记忆、转换,再准确、及时地用另一种语言表达出来,使交谈双方达到交际的目的。
口译工作同其它事物一样,有其内在规律和运行程序。译员只有认识和掌握其规律,并在实践中按照其运行程序操作,才能获得良好的口译效果。口译的程序可以分为:听清――理解――记忆――表达四个环节,但这四个环节紧密衔接,彼此不可分割,有些环节几乎是同步进行的。对中国译员来说,英译汉和汉译英时,各个环节的难度和侧重会有所不同。
下面分别讨论各个环节的特点和实际操作。
1. 听清
口译的运作程序是从语言信息的输入开始的。除视译是通过视觉接收信息外,绝大多数情况下译员是通过听觉从说话人那里接收语言信息的。因此,译员的听觉和对听入信息的理解是口译的第一道关口。对中国译员来说英译汉时尤其如此,因为我们对英语的掌握远不如母语那样熟练。英译汉时听力理解始终是我们的薄弱环节。不难想象,如果译员没有听清或听懂说话人讲的英语,就无从译成汉语;如果没有完全听懂或听错了,就不可能准确、完整地传达说话人的原意,甚至会造成误解,导致双方交际的失败或更严重的后果。因此,译员必须有敏锐的听觉、很好的语感和善于区分不同语音、语调、词汇和句法的能力。
一个好的译员不仅能听懂英美国家人讲的标准英语,而且能听懂以英语为母语国家人讲的各种不同的英语变体,如爱尔兰英语、苏格兰英语、加拿大英语、澳大利亚英语、新西兰英语、南非英语等。他们还必须能听懂把英语作为第二语言或官方语言使用的人们所讲的英语,如印度英语、新加坡英语、菲律宾英语、西非国家人讲的英语等。还能听懂把英语作为外语使用的非英语国家人讲的英语。与标准英语相比,他们的英语可能发音不准,用词不当,甚至还有语法错误。对中国译员来说能够听懂不同国家和地区的英语十分重要,尤其是现在,我国实行的是全方位的对外开放。我们不仅要同英语国家打交道,而且要同全世界各国人民发展交流与合作。英语是全世界使用最广泛的语言,但以英语为母语的国家并不多。大多数国家是把英语作为第二语言、官方语言或者外语来使用的。不同国家人讲的英语各有特点,与标准英语在发音、词汇、语法上都有一定的区别。因此,译员平时要有意识地训练和培养自己适应各种不同英语的语音、语调、词汇、句法的能力,努力提高自己的英语听力理解能力,这是提高口译质量的重要一环。
汉译英时,情况有所不同。除了浓重的地方口音、方言土语、怪癖习语、俚语或专业术语外,对中国译员来说,听懂汉语一般不成问题。重要环节是理解;关键是语码转换和英语表达。

2. 理解
理解是译员对接收的语言信息进行分析、解意、综合等加工处理而后做出正确判断和理解的过程。说话人传递的信息是由多种因素组成的,有语言的和非语言的。译员对接收信息的理解包括下述几个层面的内容:
首先是语言性的理解。语言是信息的主要载体。口译是一种语言交际活动,信息的传递主要靠译员对原语的理解,包括对说话人的语音、语调、语法、词汇、词义及语篇等语言因素的理解。因此,译员必须有扎实的语言知识、丰富的词汇,不但要熟练掌握两种交际语的常用语、成语、谚语、俗语等,而且要善于捕捉“言外之音”、“话外之意”,从说话人的语气、语调、隐语和语境中体会其话语的真正含意。由此可见,语言层面的理解根本在于译员对参与交际的两种语言掌握的娴熟程度。译员应该精通两种语言,尤其是外语的水平应接近母语水平。
另外,语言性的理解与文化背景知识密切相关。由于交际双方使用的两种语言各有其社会意识和文化内涵,如果不了解一种语言的社会文化背景就很难理解和掌握那种语言,当然也就无从翻译。因此,译员要有良好的双语文化修养,既了解原语文化,又熟悉本民族的文化,只有这样,口译时才能从两种文化的对比中找出相互“对应”的概念和词语,进行语义转换。译员对两种文化了解得越透彻,就越能深刻理解说话人的原意。
二是知识性的理解。口译涉及的内容极为广泛。当今世界,各种国际交流活动非常频繁。除了经常性的政治外交、经济贸易、文化体育等交流外,各种专业性、学术性的会议和交流活动也越来越频繁。双方谈话的内容可能涉及许多方面。译员如果掌握了足够的相关方面的专业知识,就能从专业的角度去分析和理解谈话内容。反之,如果译员缺乏有关谈话主题的专业知识,即使外语水平再高,也不可能充分理解谈话的内容。可见知识与理解密切相关。译员的知识越丰富,对谈话的理解就越深刻,口译也就越顺利。
成功的译员应是多面手,具有丰富的基础知识。当然,这不是要求译员事事通,样样懂,是全才,是专家。但译员必须掌握起码的国际知识,具有政治、经济、商贸、法律、人文、科技等方面的基本知识,了解原语国的政治、经济、史地、社会等基本概况,熟悉我国的国情,尤其是我国的对内对外政策及在重大国际问题上的立场、观点和态度。在条件允许下,译员要事先有所准备,尽量熟悉交际双方将要讨论的主题及可能涉及的知识范围。
译员的知识获取主要靠平时坚持不懈的努力。自觉的译员善于抓住每次实践机会,不断积累和扩充知识,丰富词汇,提高口译水平。
三是逻辑性的理解。译员除靠说话人发出的语言信息和对谈话主题的了解来理解说话人的意思外,还借助对谈话内容的分析和逻辑推理加深理解。交际中双方各以不同的身份、地位参与谈话。双方谈话时都有各自的思路、方式和目的。谈话内容有内在的逻辑和联系。译员要搞清说话人的身份、地位、职业等情况,尽快了解其谈话的意图,抓住其谈话的内在联系,通过对其谈话的分析和逻辑推理,确切理解说话人的真正含义,这样,就不会因为偶尔没有完全听清说话人的谈话而中断思维和理解。译员可通过逻辑推理,跟上说话人的思路,理解其本意。即使在说话人发生口误或谈话前后颠倒的情况下,译员也能正确推导出他的意思,并将其正确口译出来。
3. 记忆
译员在对接收的语言信息进行处理的过程中,需要把获取的信息暂时留存在记忆里,以防在转换和表达时信息流失或漏译、误译。因此,译员要有较强的记忆力,特别是交替翻译时记忆力尤其重要。因为交替翻译时说话人常常是讲2-3分钟甚至4-5分钟才停下来。译员对说话人的谈话内容不能随意增减,更不能违背其原意,进行编造,必须把说话人的原意忠实、完整、及时地表达出来。
因此,译员必须在理解的瞬间最大限度地调动自己的记忆力,把谈话的意思记下来,再选择恰当的措辞和句子表达出来。可见记忆和理解是紧密相连的,几乎是同时进行的,也是相辅相成的。理解了的东西最易记忆;记忆又能影响理解和表达。实际上,口译过程中译员是边听、边记、边理解。
记忆有两种形式:一是心记,二是笔记。同声传译时讲话和翻译几乎同时进行,来不及笔记;笔记会分散精力,影响下一句的听和译。一般情况下译员全凭心记。交替翻译则不同,译员要等说话人讲完一段停下来再翻译;译员必须依靠笔记帮助记忆。然而,不管是同声传译还是交替翻译,都要求译员有出众的记忆力。因此,译员要通过实践锻炼强化自己的记忆力。记笔记是一项专门的口译技巧,将在另一单元专门讨论。

2007-12-08 16:56:36 来自青青岛社区
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4. 表达
表达是译员在充分理解原话的基础上,用译入语表达说话人原意的过程。听清、理解、记忆的最终目的是为了表达。表达的过程中,译员要对理解了的信息和概念进行语码转换、重新编码、综合概括、选择适当的词语,及时准确地译出。表达时译员要做到发音清晰、语调准确、措辞得当、语句通顺、自然流畅。这些是表达的基本要求,也是口译质量好坏的重要标志。成功的表达既能完整、准确、流利地传达说话人的信息,又能保持说话人的风格和特点。出色的口译能使双方交谈“水乳交融”,丝毫不感到交际中语言障碍的存在,好像双方在直接交谈。在一些国际会议上,常常会看到这种现象:当与会者在聆听一位代表慷慨激昂的发言时,会发现传译室里的译员以同样的激情,一边口译,一边情不自禁地挥动手臂。译员如此传情达意, 完美理想的表达效果取决于译员的语言功底和演讲才能。译员不仅要有纯正的母语和熟练的外语,而且要有一定的演讲技巧。表达时口齿伶俐、声音洪亮、音色优美、节奏适宜,选词造句有一定的功力。这样的口译才能吸引和打动听众。
六、译员的基本素质要求
当今世界,口译已经成为一种重要、崇高而令人向往的工作,同时也是一种要求很高,很难进入的职业。涉外口译人员的任务艰巨,责任重大,没有良好的思想素质和过硬的业务能力是很难胜任工作的。一名称职的译员都应具备那些基本条件呢?
首先,一名合格的译员要有良好的政治思想素质和崇高的职业道德,具有较高的政策水平和严格的组织纪律。在涉外工作中,译员的工作和表现代表国家的形象,民族的精神,国家或集团的利益。译员对工作要有强烈的责任感和高度负责精神,在对外交往中要忠于祖国,正确执行党和国家的方针、政策,严守国家机密,严格遵守外事纪律和涉外人员守则,忠于职守,洁身自爱,不谋私利,不自行其事,不做任何有损国格和人格的事。
一名合格的译员必须有过硬的业务能力,其中包括厚实的母语和外语功底,不仅要有扎实的两种语言的语音、语调、词法、句法、语法等基本知识,而且要有熟练的语言运用能力和跨文化交际能力;译员要有敏锐的听力、丰富的词汇,翻译时口齿清晰,语调自然,措辞得当,表达准确、流畅。同时,译员要熟练掌握一定数量的习语、谚语、略语、委婉语、诙谐语、专业术语、诗句、名言、警句的译法,灵活运用各种口译的方法和技巧,只有这样,才能在各种口译场合左右逢源,运用自如,从容不迫,闯过一道道难关,达到传情达意的效果。
译员的业务素质还包括广博的知识。口译过程中,译员会遇到各式各样题材的谈话,其内容几乎是包罗万象,无所不及的。因此,一个称职的译员必须有国际事务、时事政治、经济商贸、历史地理、社会文化、国情民俗、人文科学和现代科技等各方面的基本知识。译员的知识越丰富就越能充分理解谈话的内容和含义,越能确切表达说话人的原意。
译员还必须有敏锐的头脑,快速的反应,出众的记忆,高度的判断能力,较强的综合分析能力,逻辑思维能力和随机应变能力,只有这样,才能在各种场合的口译中立于不败之地。
译员还必须有良好的个人修养,在涉外活动中要做到仪表端庄、举止大方、彬彬有礼、态度谦和、风度文雅,既要热情友好,又要不卑不亢。译员要注意在工作实践中不断提高自己的政治、业务素质和个人修养。

第二单元        Unit 2
方法和技巧(1) Methods and Skills (1)

口译的方法和技巧因其内容、要求、对象、场合的不同而不同。为了准确、完满地传达说话人的原意,译员要根据具体情况,选择适当的方法,灵活运用各种不同的技巧,提高口译的表达效果。口译的方法和技巧可概括为以下几种:
一、        直译
汉英两种语言属于不同的语系,在语言结构、表达方式、修辞手段和思维方式等方面都有各自的不同特点。但是,两种语言在词汇、句子结构、语序和文化内涵等方面又有一定的对等性。直译就是利用这种对等关系,口译时,在保证准确传递说话人原意的前提下尽量使原语在词语、句子结构和语序上与译入语保持一致。对等直译法是口译中最基本、最常用的方法,同时也是最有效、最实用、最简便的方法。
以下英语的汉译就是利用这种对等关系直译的。
(1)        Today, technology has made us all virtual neighbors.
今天,科技使我们所有国家实际上成为邻邦。
(2) As you build a new China, America wants to build a new relationship with you;We want China to be successful, secure and open, working with us for a more peaceful and prosperous world.
当你们建设一个新中国的时候,美国希望同你们建立一种新型关系,我们希望中国成功、安全、开放、同我们一起为一个更加和平、繁荣的世界而工作。
(3) In the 21st century----your century----China and the United States will face the challenge of security in Asia.
在二十一世纪――你们的世纪――中美两国要面对亚洲安全问题的挑战。
(4) One of our founding fathers, Benjamin Franklin, once said: “Our critics are our friends, for they show us our faults.”
美国的奠基者之一, 本杰明q弗兰克林曾经说过:“批评我们的人就是我们的朋友,因为他们指出了我们的错误。”

以下汉语的英译也是利用英汉对等关系直译的。
(1) 首先,请允许我代表在座的,向我们的贵宾表示热烈的欢迎和真诚的问候。
First of all, please allow me, on behalf of all present here, to extend our warm welcome and cordial greetings to our distinguished guests.
(2) 虽然我们来自不同的背景,说不同的语言,但是,我相信我们将通过对体育的共同热爱找到共同的语言和共同的友谊。
Although we come from many different backgrounds and speak many different languages, I am sure we shall find a common language and mutual friendship through our joint interest in sports.
(3) 我相信中国的改革开放和稳定会给亚欧国家的商界带来可观的投资和贸易良机。
I am convinced that China's reform, open up and stability will provide the business community of Asian and European countries with tremendous investment and trade opportunities.
(4) 我们将坚持“和平统一”和“一国两制”的基本原则。
We shall adhere to the basic principles of “peaceful reunification” and “one country, two systems”.
(5) 我们的干部要能上能下
Our cadres should be ready to go up and equally ready to go down.

2007-12-08 16:57:14 来自青青岛社区
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从句子结构来看,有以下几种常见句型,英语和汉语是基本对应的。
1. 主语+系动词+表语
2. 主语+不及物动词
3. 主语+及物动词+宾语
4. 主语+及物动词+双宾语(间接宾语和直接宾语)
5. 主语+及物动词+复合宾语(宾语和宾语补足语)
6. There +系动词+主语

以下英语句子的汉译就是利用以上几种句子对等关系直译的。
(1) As you said in your toast, the Chinese people are a great people;the American people are a great people. If our two peoples are enemies, the future of this world we share together is dark indeed.
正如你在祝酒词中所说的,中国人民是伟大的人民,美国人民是伟大的人民。如果我们两国人民互相为敌,我们所共有的这个世界将黯淡无光。
(2) The distance between our two nations, indeed between any nations, is shrinking.
我们两国之间的距离,实际上,所有国家之间的距离都正在缩小。
(3) Over the past week, we have seen the glory of China’s past in Xi’an, the vibrancy of its present in Beijing, the promise of its future in Shanghai and Hong Kong.
在过去的一星期,我们在西安看到了过去的中国灿烂辉煌,在北京看到了今日的中国生气勃勃,在上海和香港看到了未来的中国前途无量。
(4) On behalf of all the members of my delegation, I would like to take this opportunity to express our sincere thanks to our host for their gracious hospitality we have received.
我愿借此机会,代表我们代表团的全体成员,对我们受到的友好款待,向我们的东道主表示衷心的感谢。
(5) So I hope we will have many more Americans coming here to study, many more Americans coming here to be tourists, many more Americans coming here to do business.
所以我希望我们还会有很多美国人到这里学习,很多美国人到这里旅游,很多美国人到这里做生意。
(6) There is no reason for us to be enemies.
我们没有理由成为敌人。

以下汉语句子的英译也是利用以上几种句子对等关系直译的。
(1)        实现祖国完全统一是全中国人民的共同心愿。
To realize complete reunification of the motherland is the shared aspiration of the entire
Chinese people.
(2)        我们生活在一个多极化的世界里。
We are living in a world of diversity.
(3)        我们坚持独立自主的和平外交政策。
We consistently pursued an independent foreign policy.
(4)        昨天,我参观了国际商用机器公司、美国电话电报公司和贝尔实验室,领略了当代
科技发展的前沿成就。
My visit to IBM, AT & T and the Bell laboratory yesterday gave me some first-hand
knowledge of the latest success in modern science and technology.
(5)        今天,正在为实现现代化而奋斗的中国人民,把改革开放作为一项基本国策。
Today the Chinese people who are struggling to achieve modernization have made the
openingCup a basic policy.
(6) 九届全国人大有女代表650人,占代表总数的21.82%。
There are 650 women deputies to the Ninth National People’s Congress, accounting for 21.82
per cent of the total.

改革开放以来,我国政治、经济、文化和社会生活各方面都发生了深刻的变化。各种新事物、新观念、新发现、新发明层出不穷,反映这些变化的新词语也不断涌现。对外宣传的汉语口译中随时可能涉及这些词语。另一方面靠译员熟练掌握口译的方法和技巧,善于根据具体情况,灵活处理, 能直译的就直译,不能直译的就意译、转译或采用其它变通处理办法,关键在于达意,即准确无误的转达原话的意思。以下汉语新词语的英译就是采用直译法。英语表达既简洁明了,又生动活现。有的已约定俗成,广为流传。译员要特别留意记忆和积累这些词语。

建设有中国特色的社会主义  build socialism with Chinese characteristics
加快改革开放的步伐 quicken the pace of reform and opening-up
全方位、多层次、宽领域的对外开放 opening up in all direction, at all levels and in a wide range
经济特区  special economic zone
经济开发区 economic development zone
中国西部大开发 large-scale development in west China
经济腾飞 economic take-off
知识经济  knowledge economy
宏观调控 macro-control
引进外资 introduce foreign capital
竞争机制 competition mechanism
外资企业 foreign-funded enterprise
合资企业 joint venture
独资企业 wholly foreign-owned enterprise
私人企业  private business
个体户    self-employed businessman
炒股      buying and selling shares
股民      share holders
新兴产业  emerging industry
高科技产品  high-tech product
退耕还林(草) return cultivated land to forests or pastures
封山育林 close off hillsides to facilitate forestation
一国两制  one country, two systems
香港特别行政区Hong Kong Special Administration Region ( HKSAR )
政府机构改革 restructure of government institutions
反腐败     fight corruption /anti-corruption
廉政建设    build a clean and honest government
公共关系   public relation
人民公仆   servant of the people
扶贫计划   help-the-poor programs
打假        anti fraud
扫黄打非    eliminate the sale and production of pornographic and illegal publications
跨世纪人才  cross-century talented people
超级市场    supermarket
购物中心    shopping center
连锁店      chain store
娱乐中心    entertainment center
绿色食品    green-food
保健食品    healthy food
度假村     holiday villa
二、反译法
由于汉英思维方式的不同,英汉语言的表达习惯也不尽相同。口译中,有时正译难以措辞或者效果欠佳。这种情况下,一般要反其道而译之, 在词义、句式、肯定与否定、主动与被动、先后顺序等方面采用正反变通方法来处理。这就是反译。某些特定的词汇和句式采用反译法语言更生动流畅, 更能表达原意。
以下类型的句子都可以采用反译法,而且效果更佳。
1. 肯定与否定的反译。英汉互译中,某些英语否定句、双重否定句或介词结构可以用汉语的肯定句来表示。而英语的肯定式同样可以用汉语的否定式来表示。例如:
(1) It has given us not a little trouble
这给我们带来很多麻烦。
(2) He is no other than the professional talent we are looking for.
他正是我们要物色的专业人才。
(3) You couldn’t turn on television without seeing a woman advertising for some cosmetics.
你一开电视准会看到一个女人在作某化妆品广告。
(4) You will fail unless you work hard.
若不努力就会失败。
(5) This is the last thing we wish to see.
这是我们最不愿意看到的事情。
(6) Several times she wanted to tell him what had happened, but her courage failed her.
好几次她都想告诉他事情的真相,但是她没有勇气。
2. 其他反译。 除了肯定与否定,反译也用于时间先后、不同位置、不同角度之间的互译。例如:
(1) After you please.
您先请。
(2) He never went to bed before 12 o’clock.
他总是十二点以后才睡觉。
    (3) More tests should be conducted before we can come to a conclusion.
我们需要做更多的实验,然后才能得出结论。
(4) She sat there, her chin cupped in her hands.
她坐在那里,双手托着下巴。
三、意译法
语言是文化的组成部分和载体。不同民族的文化之间既存在着差异又互相联系,既有各自独特的个性又有普遍的共性。这种不同文化之间的共性为两种语言文化的交流――翻译提供了基础和可行性。而两种语言文化的个性又给这种交流和翻译造成障碍和困难。口译时, 如果按字面意思直译,意思可能含糊不请,不能确切表达原话的信息和文化内涵,有时还可能引起严重曲解,甚至与原意风牛马不相及,完全两回事。这时译员就要根据具体情况,采取其他变通办法,作适当的语法和词汇调整,或进行解释性翻译,或说明具体内容,关键是要译出原话的真正含义。这就是意译。例如,以下英语词语和句子若按字面意思或对等关系直译,结果不是产生歧义就是词不达意,只有意译才能确切表达原意。
                             直译                   意译

Queen’s English               女王的英语              标准英语
    small talk                    小声交谈                闲聊
sandwichman                 卖三明治的人            夹板广告员
queer fish                    怪鱼                    怪人         
black sheep                   黑羊                    害群之马
lame duck                    跛鸭                    落选的议员
Home Secretary               家庭秘书                (英国的)内务大臣
at the eleventh hour            在第11点钟              最后时刻
    Wet paint!                    湿油漆!                 油漆未干!
Keep off the lawn!             离开草坪!               请勿践踏草坪!
I will show you the ropes.       我给你看些绳子           我教你做法
    You’d better go to see a doctor.   你最好去看医生。          你最好去看病。
He always tries to keep up      他总在极力追赶琼斯。    他总在和周围的人攀比。
with the Joneses.
      
目前我们的对外宣传中出现了很多汉语新词语,这些词语都有特定的含义。如果不加分析一律采取对等直译,译出的英语可能概念模糊、意思不清,要不就是中式英语,外国人根本不理解。遇到这种情况,只能采取意译的方法。试比较以下汉语词语和句子的直译与意译的不同效果。
直译                            意译
拳头产品    fist products              competitive products / knock-out products
三角债      triangle debts             chain debts
经济作物    economic crops           cash crops / industrial crops
外向经济    outward economy         export-oriented economy
向钱看      looking at money          money-oriented / money grubbing / money mad      
最高限价    highest price              ceiling price   
认购        recognize and buy         offer to buy / subscribe
素质教育    quality education          education for all-round development   
使中国经济走向世界   
直译:  make China’s economy go to the world market     
意译:  make China’s economy more competitive on the world market / make China a more active economic player in the world
使中国经济与国际接轨  
直译: make China’s economy be linked with international economy
意译: bring China’s economy more in line with international practice
实现小康目标
直译: achieve the goal of a little comfortable life
意译: achieve the goal of ensuring our people a relatively comfortable life

有着五千年文明史的中华民族文化博大精深,从古到今总有一些我们民族自己独有的东西。这些东西在英语里很难找到对应的词语来表达。比如,我国传统建筑里的很多东西都是我们民族独有的,英语里是没有对应词语的。它们的英译都是采用意译法。例如:
  斗拱结构  a system of brackets inserted between the top of a column and a crossbeam
    牌楼  decorated archway
    牌坊  memorial archway
    茶楼  teahouse
    酒楼  wine shop
戏楼  theater stage
吊脚楼 wooden house projecting over the water
四合院 courtyard with houses on the four sides;Chinese courtyard houses
窑洞  cave dwelling

中国菜肴烹调技术之高超驰名中外,我国东西南北八大菜系和各民族风味各异的美味佳肴令外国游客大开眼界,大饱口福。然而,这些菜肴和食品的口译的确使我们的译员大伤脑筋。菜肴和食品的翻译最重要的是要译出是什么做的,采用什么方法做的。即抓住用料、刀法、烹调法和口味这几个关键,能直译的则直译,不能直译的则意译。例如:
北京烤鸭  roasted Beijing duck
香酥鸡    crisp fried chicken
醋溜子鸡  fried spring chicken with vinegar sauce
糖醋黄鱼  sweet and sour yellow croaker
清蒸鲑鱼  steamed mandarin fish
清炖甲鱼  braised turtle in clear soup
茄汁鱼丸  fried fish balls with tomato sauce
青椒肉片  fried sliced pork and green pepper
鱼香肉丝  fish-flavored shredded pork in hot sauce           
鲜菇大虾  fried prawn with fresh mush rooms
荷叶粉蒸肉  steamed flour-coated pork wrapped in lotus leaves
煨牛肉  simmered beef
涮羊肉  instant boiled mutton

  有些菜肴和食品只有采用解释性的意译。例如:
五香牛肉  spiced beef
葫芦鸡    roasted whole chicken
松鼠黄鱼  sweet and sour fried croaker in a squirrel shape
红烧狮子头 stewed minced pork balls with brown sauce
芙蓉虾仁  shrimps with egg white
麻婆豆腐  spicy bean curd in Sichuan style
八宝糕    eight-treasure pudding
什锦炒饭  fried rice with ten ingredients
炸酱面    noodles in Beijing style
扬州炒饭  fried rice in Yangzhou style
凉面      cold noodles with sesame sauce
饺子      dumpling
元宵      sweet dumpling
馄饨      dumpling soup
油条      deep fried dough sticks
花卷      steamed roll
锅贴      fried dumpling
包子      steamed stuffed bun
窝窝头    steamed corn bread
烧饼      sesame seed cake

2007-12-08 16:57:48 来自青青岛社区
回复:

有些涉及汉字形象或中国特有器皿形状的描写是很难直译的,只有采取变通处理办法,进行意译。如:
三个人品字式坐下, 闲聊了一会儿. The three men sat facing each other and talking for a while.
秦始皇兵马俑一号坑呈长方形,二号坑呈曲尺形,三号坑呈“凹”字型。三个坑呈“品”字型排列。可译为:
Pit No. 1 of Emperor Qin Shihuang’s terra cotta warriors and horses is oblong in shape. Pit No. 2 is “L”-shaped and No. 3 is “U”-shaped. The three pits are arranged in a triangle.
汉武帝的陵墓形如复斗。The mausoleum of Emperor Wudi of Han dynasty was constructed in a ladder shape.

这样的英译虽不如汉语那样形象逼真,但也是一种较好的变通办法。
广袤无垠、k丽多姿的神州大地和中华民族五千年的文明史所创造的不计其数的名胜古迹是中国悠久历史的见证,中国灿烂文化的缩影和中华民族勤劳智慧的结晶。名胜古迹的英译是宣传华夏文明、进行文化交流、帮助外国人了解中国的重要途径。但由于名胜古迹的取名常常涉及特定的历史背景,有丰富的文化内涵,口译起来比较困难,有的甚至根本无法翻译。因而,有些译员便采取简单的音译,或使用汉语拼音的办法予以应急,求得过关,但外国人听了却不知所云,毫无反应。因此,名胜古迹的口译除万不得已,应尽量采用意译或音译与意译并用的方法,译出其内容和含义,使外国人听其音,知其实,这样才能引起他们的兴趣,收到良好的效果。例如,以下名胜古迹采用意译,效果会好得多。

太和殿 Hall of Supreme Harmony / Hall of Grand Harmony
中和殿 Hall of Central Harmony
保和殿 Hall of Preserving Harmony
养性殿 Hall of Mental Cultivation
乾清宫 Palace of Heavenly Purity
宁寿宫 Palace of Peace and Longevity
长春宫 Palace of Eternal Spring  
储秀宫 Palace of Gathering Excellence
大观园 Garden of Grand View/ Grand View Garden
德和园 Garden of Harmonious Virtue
拙政园 Garden of Humble Administrator
乐寿堂 Hall of Happiness and Longevity
大慈悲寺 Temple of Great Mercy
慈恩寺 Temple of Thanksgiving
献福寺 Temple of Offering Happiness
独秀峰  Peak of Unique Beauty
天都峰  Heavenly Capital Peak
五老峰  Five Old Men Peak
大雁塔  Big Wild Goose Pagoda
六和塔  Pagoda of Six Harmonies
爱晚亭  Love Dusk Pavilion
陶然亭  Joyous Pavilion
万佛洞  Cave of Ten Thousand Buddhist Figures
紫云洞  Purple Cloud Cave
龙隐洞  Hidden Dragon Cave
烟霞洞  Cave of Morning Mist and Sunset Glow

四、增减译法

语言作为文化的一部分代代相传。汉英两种语言在其发展过程中都蕴含着各自丰富的文化信息,文化特征和文化背景。因此,口译的成功与否在很大程度上取决于译员对双方文化和社会背景的理解和熟知程度。口译中,遇到涉及交际双方社会和文化背景知识时,译员要根据听众的具体情况,加以必要的解释或补充说明,以提高口译效果,  这就是增译。比如,在口译以下英语词语和句子时最好加以补充说明。
the two Houses of American government  美国政府参、众两院
The Golden State  金山州――美国加州
Paradise of the Pacific  太平洋上的天堂――美国夏威夷州
The Sunshine State  阳光州――美国佛罗里达州
The Big Apple  大苹果――美国纽约市
The Motor City  汽车城――美国底特律市
The Film Capital of the World  世界影都――美国好莱坞
Broadway in Manhattan  曼哈顿的百老汇――美国纽约曼哈顿区的一条大街,以有名的
剧院著称
Wall Street in New York  华尔街――美国纽约市的一街道名,以金融业聚集而著称。
    “General Sherman” in Sequoia National Park  谢尔曼将军――美国加州红杉国家公园中一棵最高,树龄最长的巨杉树。
the two Houses of British government  英国政府上、下两院
Shadow Cabinet  英国政府的影子内阁,即在野党内阁
Speakers’ Corner  英国伦敦海德公园的讲演者之角,人们在这里可以发表任何内容的演说。
Soapbox orators  肥皂箱上的演说家――指讲演者之角那些站在自带肥皂箱之类的东西
上发表演说的人
Democracy on the Soapbox  肥皂箱上的民主――指站在肥皂箱上发表的自由演说
Downing Street  唐宁街――英国伦敦首相官邸和政府主要部门所在地,即英国政府
Fleet Street  舰队街――英国伦敦一街道名,以报业集中而著称,指伦敦新闻界,伦敦报业
Lombard Street  伦巴第街――伦敦金融中心,现指英国金融界、金融市场

同样,在我们的对外宣传和旅游的汉英口译中,译员要充分考虑中外文化差异和多数外国人对中国社会和文化并不熟悉这一事实,汉译英时要根据听众的具体情况,对一些外国人不熟悉和难以理解的汉语常用术语,尤其是一些政治术语和有特定文化内涵的词语,进行必要的解释或说明。比如,我们非常熟悉的“人大”、“政协”、“四个现代化”、“双百方针”、“希望工程”等,如果只按字面直译,恐怕多数外国人不理解。但如果采用增译法,加上必要的解释或背景说明,外国人就好懂多了。

人大 the National People’s Congress, China’s highest legislative body 
政协  the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, China's top advisory and supervisory body
四个现代化 the four modernizations; that is the modernization of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology
双百方针  the principle of letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend in academic activities, art and literature sphere
希望工程  Project Hope, a project aiming at assisting school dropouts in poverty-stricken areas by raising funds from all social organizations and individuals at home and abroad.

改革开放以后出现了很多有特定含义的汉语新词语。如果只按字面直译,不加解释和说明,外国人很难理解,甚至会产生严重误解。比如,如果把“五讲、四美、三热爱”不加解释,只按字面直译为“five stresses,four beauties and three loves” 外国人很可能理解为“...四个美人,三个情人” 之类的意思,因而感到莫名其妙。为了避免误解,比较准确地表达原意,这个短语的英译应加以解释和补充,译成“five stresses,four points of beauty and three aspects of love;that is stress on decorum,manners,hygiene,discipline,and morals;beauty of the mind,language,behavior and the environment;love of the motherland,socialism and the Communist Party.”这样效果就好多了。以下词语的英译都是采用增译法:

“两个文明”一起抓 to place equal emphasis on both material advancement and ethical progress
“三个代表” Three represents----The Communist Party of China always represents the requirement of the development trend of China’s advanced productive forces, the orientation of China’s advanced culture, and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the  Chinese people.
培养“四有公民”to train people to be citizens with high ideas, moral integrity, a good education and strong sense of discipline
对干部进行“三讲”教育 to educate the cadres on the importance of study, raising political awareness and ensuring honesty and integrity.
抓大放小 to invigorate large enterprises while relaxing control over small ones; to focus on the restructuring of major enterprises and leave minor ones to fend for themselves
安居工程  housing project for low-income urban residents
“五个一工程”  the Five-one Program/ Project ( one good book, one good play, one good film, one good TV drama, and one or several creative and persuasive/convincing articles)
在对外介绍中国历史文化的口译中,常常会遇到一些我们中国人非常熟悉的有关重大历史事件,历史人物、典故、民风、民俗方面的汉译英。对不熟悉中国历史文化的外国人来说,适当的解释或补充说明非常重要。这样可以帮助外国人了解中国历史,文化和社会,提高对外宣传效果。以下词语的英语都稍加了补充说明,外国人听了容易理解。
改革开放以来 since the implementation of reform and open policy in 1979
建国以来  since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949
五四运动  the May Fourth Movement, a great anti-imperialist, anti-feudal, political and cultural movement which took place on May fourth, 1919
炎黄子孙  the descendants /offspring of Yandi and Huangdi, the two earliest chiefs of the Chinese nation and all the Chinese people are descendants of Yandi and Huangdi  
秦始皇  Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China who unified China in 220 BC
白居易  Bai Juyi, a famous Chinese poet of Tang Dynasty in the 8th century  
春节  Spring Festival, the traditional Chinese New Year, which falls on the first day of the first month according to the Chinese lunar calendar.
中秋节  the Mid-autumn Festival, a traditional festival of family reunion, which falls on fifteenth day of the eighth lunar month.
龙舟节  the Dragon Boat Festival which falls on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month. It is a festival to commemorate Qu Yuan, the great poet and patriotic figure of the State of Chu during the Warring State period.
泼水节  Water-Sprinkling Festival, a big festival for the Dai Nationality to wish everyone happiness by splashing water to each other
  
口译,不论是英译汉还是汉译英都应以语言简洁明快、通俗易懂为佳。因此,译员要在不损害原意的情况下,尽量减去不必要的词语和重复,这就是减译。汉译英时,尽量避免使用过分中国化而外国人不懂的词语和冗长复杂的句子。比如,在参观导游,风景名胜介绍时,有人常常喜欢使用很多修饰语,详细描述景色或引经据典,介绍中国历史文化。如果译员不看对象,按原话逐字不漏地翻译,结果往往是画蛇添足,外国人迷惑不解,很快失去了听的兴趣。这一类的口译,一定要从实际出发,避免重复,简化情节。英语力求简单明了,使外国人一听就懂。也只有这样,才能引起他们的兴趣,收到良好的效果。
口译中,有时需要通过增加或删减词语, 达到最好的修辞效果。例如:
The private colleges vary greatly in standard and reputation, from the world-famous, and select to the cranky and the obscure.
私立院校的水平与声誉彼此相差甚远,从举世闻名, 出类拔萃到动荡不稳或默默无闻。
此句的汉译增加了词语,特别是恰当地运用了汉语的四字格的修辞手段,译文生动多了。
China has a great tradition. It has huge resources. It has enormous strength of will and spirit.
中国有伟大的传统,丰富的资源,巨大的意志力和精神力量。
此句的汉译删去了两个重复的 “ It has…”, 汉语既简练又流畅。

口译练习2-1

1. 用对等直译法口译下列句子:

英译汉
(1) Expanding our co-operation in science and technology can be one of our greatest gifts to the future.
(2) We can work together as equals in a spirit of mutual respect and mutual benefit.
(3) We Americans admire your accomplishment, your economy, your hard work, creativeness, and vision, your efforts against hunger and poverty, your work with us for peace and stability in Korea and South Asia.
(4) I should like to pay a tribute to the leaders of China for the vision and farsightedness of their approach to the negotiations.
    (5) I have seen the fresh shoots of democracy growing in the villages of your heartland. I have also seen the cell phones, the video players, and fax machines carrying ideas, information and images from all over the world.
(6)        There is also great potential in our joint efforts to increase managerial and scientific
expertise.

汉译英
(1) 互相了解,是发展国与国之间关系的前提。
(2)        改革开放二十五年来,中国的国力增强了,人民生活提高了。
(3)        中美保持友好关系,不仅造福两国人民,而且对促进亚太地区和世界的和平、稳定
和繁荣具有重要的意义。
(4) 我要借此机会,向伟大的美国人民转达十二亿中国人民的诚挚问候和良好祝愿。
(5) 二十一世纪即将来临,世界各国人民都期待着新世纪成为一个充满希望的世纪,我
们这个星球成为人类和平、安宁、繁荣的家园。
(6) 稳定的中美关系并不意味着两国之间不存在差异、争论或纠纷。

口译练习2-2

用反译法口译下列句子:

英译汉
(1) You must be here without fail by ten o’clock tomorrow morning.
(2) He little thought that the police would arrest him.
(3) It’s too good a chance to miss.
(4) It was beyond his power to sign a contract of one million US dollar.
(5) People take responsibility for helping others, without being told.
(6) The secret was not told until after the old man’s death.

汉译英
(1) 我再也不想见到你了。
(2) 任何国家要和平生存就必须遵守这些原则。
(3) 我们坚信要取得经济的增长首先需要政治稳定。
(4) 不搞改革,不坚持开放政策,我们制定的战略目标就不可能实现。
(5) 直到1920年,也就是美国人权法颁布129年后,美国妇女才获得了选举权。
(6) 相互了解是发展国与国之间关系的前提,唯有相互了解,才能增进信任,加强合作。

口译练习2-3

用意译或直译加意译的方法口译下列句子:

英译汉
(1)        It is easy to open a shop but hard to keep it open.
(2)        Every once in a while, a dark horse candidate gets elected president.
(3)        The student was caught cheating in an examination and he had to face the music.
(4)        How did we go, in so short a time, from living by candlelight to exploring the frontiers of
the universe by satellite; from each farmer laboring with horse and hoe for an entire year just to feed four people, to running his farm with the most modern machinery and producing enough to feed 75 people, making America the breadbasket of the world.
(5)        In America, the Senior-Citizen’s-Net enables old people to exchange their gardening tips,
debate current issues and form new friendship, and get married.
(6)        Newspapers reported that the leaders of the two countries touched all bases in their talks.
(7)        This is a dangerous and violent city. In some parts of it the only law is the law of jungle.

汉译英
(1)        中国正在发生着日新月异的变化。
(2)        今日, 四世同堂的传统大家庭在中国已经不多见。
(3)        周恩来是中华民族优秀传统的继承者。他的品德、人格、风范、情怀为中华民族树
立了一座精神丰碑。
(4)        周恩来的这些精神,无论过去、现在、和将来,都是中华民族宝贵的精神财富,是
激励炎黄子孙把中华民族不断推向前进的强大精神动力。
(5)        调查显示,在北京、上海和广州这样的大中城市,有60万多无子女的双职工家
庭。
(6)“罚款”曾是促进计划生育的有效措施,在防止非计划生育和超生方面发挥了重要作
用。
    (7) 很多中国父母“望子成龙”心切。他们给孩子花钱毫不吝啬,特别是对孩子的教育投资。

口译练习 2-4

用增减译法口译下列句子:
(1) “Uncle Sam will likely lop off 40% in taxes, which won’t leave much.” Zhu Diwen said when asked how he planned to disposed the prize money.
(2) Half of the U.S. work force is now under 35. Whether their collars are blue, white or pink, most of these are non-supervisory workers.
(3)        Some western economists say: “ When the United States coughs, the rest of the world
catches cold.”
(4) Applicants who had worked at a job for five or more years would be given certain preference over those who had not.
(5) There is no month in the whole year, in which nature wears a more beautiful appearance
than in the month of August.
(6) Let us commit to keep moving forward together, turning small steps into giant strides for our people, our nations and the world.
(7) If our people could go forward in this spirit, planting not one tree, but millions, and then tending each so it may grow sturdy and tall, then the dream of a single youth might grow into the golden dreams of all mankind.
(8)        President John Kennedy often used a metaphor to describe such progress: “ A rising tide
lifts all boats.”

(1)        我们鼓励台湾首先与大陆搞“三通”。
(2)        中国人过年的传统之一是在门上贴春联,祝福来年好运。
(3) 玄奘万里取经,带回南亚国家的古老文化。
(4) 明代郑和“七下西洋”,把中华文化传向远方的国度。
(5) 几年来,中国政府一直在致力解决大城市中的“三无”盲流人口。
(6) 让我们把中日友好事业推进21世纪及今后的世世代代。
(7) 为了推动中美关系的发展,中国需要进一步了解美国,美国也需要进一步了解中国。
(8) 每个国家,每个民族都有自己的历史文化传统,都有自己的长处和优势。

练习参考答案

练习2-1
英译汉
(1) 扩大我们在科技方面的合作可以成为我们送给未来的最大一份礼物。
(2) 我们两国可以本着平等互利和互相尊重的精神携手合作。
(3)        美国人民佩服你们的成就、你们的繁荣经济、 你们的勤劳工作、你们的创造性和远
见、你们为消除饥饿和贫穷所做的努力及你们和我们一起为维护朝鲜半岛的和平与稳定所做的工作。
(4)        中国领导人对谈判采取了高瞻远瞩的态度,对此,我谨表示敬意。
(5)        过去四天来,我看见民主在中国内地的农村萌芽。我也看见了移动电话、录像机、
传真机带来了来自世界各地的资讯和影像。
(6)        双方在共同提高经营管理技术和专门科学技术方面也是大有可为的。

汉译英
(1)        Mutual understanding is the basis for state-to Cstate relations.
(2)        Since the inception of reform and opening-up program, China’s national strength and people’s living standard have improved.                                                                                                            
(3) A friendly relationship between China and the United States not only benefits the two peoples, but also contributes significantly to peace, stability and prosperity on the Asia-Pacific and the world at large.
(4) I wish to take this opportunity to convey to the great American people the cordial greetings and best wishes of the 1.2 billion Chinese people.
(5) On the eve of the 21st century, people all over the world are looking forward to a new century full of hope and our planet blessed with peace, tranquility and prosperity for mankind.
(6) A stable Sino-US relationship does not necessary mean that there will be no differences,
controversies or disputes between the two countries.

练习2-2
英译汉
(1) 明天早上十点钟你必须赶到这里。
(2) 他一点也没有想到警察会逮捕他。
(3) 不能错过这样一个好机会。
(4) 他无权签订一项金额为一百万美元的合同。
(5) 人们主动地承担起帮助他人的责任。
(7)        这个秘密在老人去世后才说出来。

汉译英
(1) You are the last person I want to see.
(2) No nation can live in peace without these principles.
(3) We strongly believe that there can be no growth in economy without political stability.
(4) We cannot reach our strategic goal unless we carry out reform and adhere to the open policy.
(5) American women did not get their right to vote until 1920. That was 129 years after the
Bill of Rights was issued.
(6) Mutual understanding is the basis for state-to-state relations. Without it, it would be
impossible for countries to build trust and promote cooperation with each other.

练习2-3
英译汉
(1) 创业容易守业难。
(2) 时不时地,一位名不见经传的候选人赢得了总统选举。
(3) 这个学生在一次考试中作弊当场被抓, 他得为此承担后果。
(4) 美国是怎样在很短的时间内,从靠蜡烛照明的生活步入卫星上天,探索宇宙疆域的阶段呢?怎样从一个农夫用马和锄头辛苦劳动一年只能养活四口人,到用最现代化的机械耕种自己的农场,生产所得足以养活75人,使美国成为世界粮仓的呢?
(5) 在美国,夕阳网使老年人可以在网上交流养花种草的经验,发表对时事的看法,结交朋友,甚至结婚。
    (6) 据报纸上报道,两国领导人的会谈涉及了问题的各个方面。   
(8)        这是一个危险而充满暴力的城市。在有些地方,唯一的法规就是弱肉强食。

汉译英  
(1)        China now crackles with dynamics of change.
(2)        The traditional extended families of four generations living under one roof are rare in
China today.
(3) Zhou Enlai was a continuer of the fine tradition of the Chinese nation. His moral character, personality, style, and noble sentiments constituted a paragon for the Chinese nation.
(4) All these aspects of Zhou Enlai’s spirit were, are and will be treasures in the Chinese
heritage, and a powerful motive force encouraging the descendants of Emperors Yan and Huang to work for the perpetual progress of the Chinese nation.
(5) The survey shows that there are 600,000 double-income-no-kid families in large and
medium-sized cities such as Guangzhou, Beijing and Shanghai.
(6) “Fine levies” had been an effective means of promoting family planning and played an
important role in preventing unplanned and additional births.
(7) Many Chinese parents have placed much hope on their children; they do not hesitate to
spend money on their only children, especially on their education.

练习2-4
英译汉
(1) 当问起他如何处理这笔诺贝尔奖时,朱棣文说:“大概先给山姆大叔――美国政府扣去约40%的税,所剩也就不多了。”
(2) 现在美国劳动人口有一半在35岁以下。不管他们从事的是蓝领工作, 白领工作还是
粉领工作――指秘书, 打字员, 护士, 店员等女性+工作, 这些人大多数都是非管理人员。
(3) 有些西方经济学家说:“只要美国一咳嗽,全世界其他国家就感冒。”――即美国经
济的小小变化都会影响到全世界各国的经济。
(4) 工作五年或五年以上的申请者将给予一定优惠.
(5) 一年之中,大自然的美莫过于八月。
(6) 如果两国人民本着这种精神,栽下的不是一棵而是千百棵这样的树,然后一一加以培育,使他们茁壮成长,那末一个青年的梦想就有可能变成全人类的伟大梦想。
(7) 让我们共同承诺,为我们两国人民,两个国家和全世界,以巨人的步伐携手前进。
(8) 约翰q肯尼迪总统常用“水涨船高”来比喻这种社会进步。

2007-12-08 16:58:27 来自青青岛社区
回复:

汉译英
(1) We encourage Taiwan first to have “three exchange” with the mainland; that is the exchange of mails, trade and air and shipping services.
(2) One of the traditions of the Chinese New Year, the Spring Festival is that people put spring couplets, short poems written in black ink on strips of red paper on the sides and above doorways and gateways, expressing good wishes for the coming year.  
(3) Eminent Monk, Xuan Zang of the Tang Dynasty (615-907) brought back ancient culture after braving long journey to South Asia
(4) In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), Chinese navigator, Cheng He led a fleet to what the people called the West Sea seven times in the 15th century, spreading the Chinese culture to distant land.
(5) For years, the Chinese government has been working hard to tackle the migrant problem of the “three withouts” in large cities: drifters without residence cards, without legal living quarters and without a normal source of income.
(6) Let us carry the cause of China-Japan friendship into the 21st century and beyond.
(7) To promote the development of China-U.S. relations, China needs to know the United
States better and vice versa.
(6)        Every country or nation has its own historical and cultural traditions, strong points and
advantages.

2007-12-08 16:58:58 来自青青岛社区
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第三单元              Unit 3
口译的方法与技巧(2) Methods and Skills (2)


一、口译笔记

口译的成败在很大程度上取决于译员的记忆力,特别是短期记忆能力。然而人的短期记忆储存时间是非常有限的。口译中,特别是连续口译时,译员必须等说话人连续讲完几句,甚至十几句停顿下来后才能译出。有时,说话人会一口气讲出好些人名、地名或一连串的数字,这种情况下单凭心记是绝对不行的。因此,译员必须借助笔记来弥补心记的不足,确保口译中接收到的信息能全面、完整、准确的译出。
  口译笔记不同于课堂笔记,是为日后复习参考;口译笔记也不同于记者的采访笔记和会议纪录,是为事后整理、采用和查阅。口译笔记是译员在实践中逐渐摸索形成的一套自己的记录方法。有经验的译员都有自己记笔记的特点和技巧。口译笔记的时效很有限,主要用于提示译员,防止口译时信息的流失,口译过后便失去了意义。作一名译员要养成记笔记的习惯,做到说话人一开口就动手记笔记,要通过反复实践,逐渐掌握一套自己得心应手的记笔记的方法,这是做口译工作应该具备的一项基本技能。口译笔记应注意以下几点:
口译笔记要简明扼要,要记录说话人讲的时间、数字等重点、要点和关键词,切不可也没有必要求“全”、求“细”,那样会分散译员的精力,反而影响口译效果。译员要学会边听边记,手脑并用,把主要精力集中在理解上。笔记的字迹要清楚,易于辨认,空间、行距要适当留宽。这样一目了然,译员看一眼笔记能想起刚刚讲过的内容,真正起到帮助记忆的作用。作笔记时要在说话人停顿的地方划一道明显的斜线,表示下一段口译从此开始,以免重复和漏译。
口译笔记使用原语还是译入语可以因人而异。口译笔记是给译员自己看的,应以快速、方便、简明易懂为原则,不必拘泥某种语言或形式。译员可根据自己的习惯,选用原语或者译入语,也可以两种语言同时并用。事实上,有经验的译员都有一套自己惯用的两种语言混合使用的简便、快捷的记笔记的方法。
译员要选择自己熟悉,便于记忆的各种符号做口译笔记,但切记选用符号不宜过多过杂,以致表达时连译员自己都一时想不起来某个符号所代表的意思,反而影响口译的顺利进行。口译时,译员可选择用于记笔记的常用符号大致有以下几类:

1. 英语字母符号,包括首位字母缩略语和缩写词,如:
UNESCO         联合国教科文组织
    UNICEF          联合国儿童基金会
IMF             国际货币基金
WTO            世界贸易组织
EU              欧盟(欧洲同盟)
APEC           亚太经合组织(亚洲太平洋经济合作组织)
OPEC           石油输出国组织
NATO           北约(北大西洋公约组织)
CPC            中国共产党
NPC            全国人民代表大会
CPPCC          中国人民政治协商会议
CAAC           中国民航
CCTV           中央电视台
PLA             中国人民解放军
HKSAR          香港特别行政区
GDP             国民生产总值   
Ch. govt.         中国政府
re. op.            改革开放  
4 Ms             四个现代化
tot. imp           进口总额
tot. exp           出口总额
NASA            美国宇航局
FBI              美国联邦调查局
GM              美国通用汽车公司
ITT              美国电话电报公司
US/Am.           美国
UK/Br.            英国
Can.              加拿大
AUS.             澳大利亚
N.Z.              新西兰
NY               纽约
Las.              洛杉矶
US$              美元
Br£              英镑
Can$              加元
Euro              欧元
$A               澳元
NZ$              新西兰元
HK$              香港元
RMB             人民币

2.  用各种数学符号,如:
∴               所以
∵               因为
=                等于或就是,意味着
≠               不等于,不是
≈               大约,大概,左右
>                大于,多于,比…大
<                小于,少于,比…小

3. 用译员自己创造的各种形象符号,如:
×               不同意,不赞成,错误,不正确
√               同意,赞成,正确
→               从某地到某地,从某时到某时,导致,引起
←               过去,回忆,返回,后退,倒退
↓               下降,降低,减少,向下
↑               上升,提高,增加,向上
□←             来访,进入,进口,引进外资,来华投资
□→             出访,外出,出口,海外投资
☆               杰出,优秀,最佳,突出,标兵,榜样
∽               交换,交流,交替, 互换
3―, ―           300,000
5,―, ―         5,000,000

二、数字的口译

任何话题的口译都可能遇到各种复杂的数字。而数字的口译又必须准确无误,不得有半点疏忽。对初任口译的人来说,数字的口译往往是一大难点。造成汉英数字互译困难的原因有几个方面:
一是汉语和英语的数字表达方式和四位以上数字的数位分段法不同。汉语数位的个、十、百、千、万、十万、百万、千万、亿、十亿等都是用10的倍数来表达的。汉语四位以上的数字每四位为一段;而英语则每三位为一段。试比较汉英数字段位的不同。

汉语数字分段法:
第一段位        个        十        百        千
第二段位        万        十万        百万        千万
第三段位        亿        十亿        百亿        千亿
第四段位        兆(万亿)                       

英语数字分段法:
第一段位        One        Ten        Hundred
第二段位        Thousand        Ten thousand        Hundred thousand
第三段位        Million        Ten million        Hundred million
第四段位        Billion        Ten billion        Hundred billion
第五段位        Trillion               

2007-12-08 16:59:37 来自青青岛社区
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从以上对比中可以看出,英语数词中没有与汉语“万”、“十万”、“千万”、“亿”等相对应的词,这就给汉英数字互译带来很大不便。汉译英时遇到以上数字时,译员必须很快推算出与其相对应的英语数位和表达方式。用“ten thousand”表示“万”,用“hundred thousand”表示“十万”,用“ten million”表示“千万”,用“hundred million”表示“亿”等。英译汉时则要做相反的推算和转换。这样,译员在进行语言转换的同时,要不停地进行数位的推导和换算,脑子活动异常紧张,稍不注意便会出错。
造成汉英数字互译困难的另一个原因是英语有可数和不可数名词之分,在表示与可数和不可数名词相关的不定数字或倍数时,汉英两种语言的表达方式不同。例如:下列几组不定数字的汉语表达方式基本上是一样的,而英语则不同。

很多人(书)  many people(books)
很多水(啤酒)much water(beer)
很多人(水)  a lot of people (water)
大量的参考书  a large number of reference books
大量有用的信息  a large quantity of useful information
大批的产品(食物) large quantities of products (food)

你要多少(面包)就拿多少。Take as much(bread)as you want.
你要多少(桔子)就拿多少。Take as many (oranges) as you want.

该工厂生产的小轿车(化肥)是上一年的两倍。
The factory produced twice as many cars (as much chemical fertilizer) as that in the precious year.

由此可见,数字的口译的确比较复杂、困难,但还是有一定的规律可循。译员可根据具体情况采取以下做法:

1.三位以内数字的口译
三位以内数字的汉英互译在语言表达上基本一致,各数字都有相应的词,无须推算,只要按英语和汉语的习惯读出数字就行了。只是英语的百位和十位之间一般要加“and”。请做下列数字互译练习。
用英语朗读下列数字

15―fifteen
20―twenty
35―thirty-five
63―sixty-three
101―one hundred and one
207―two hundred and seven
370―three hundred and seventy
414―four hundred and fourteen
839―eight hundred and thirty-nine
948―nine hundred and forty-eight

2.四位以上数字的口译
四位以上数字的口译较为复杂,因为英汉数字分段方法和表达方式的不同,在译出之前需要进行一番换算。另外,数字互译时,译员要学会记录和分段,这样翻译起来就容易多了。例如,英译汉时,听到英语数字时,特别是较为复杂的数字和系列数字时,立即用阿拉伯数字记录下来,记录的同时按英语数位分段法,从后往前每三位数为一段,用一逗号分开。这样就会在“thousand”,“million”,“billion”等各数位后分别有一逗号。因为英语数字的分段法正好和阿拉伯数字的分节法相一致,都是三位一段。分段后的数字以逗号为参照,按英汉数字换算规律,第一个逗号前一位译成“千”,前两位译成“万”,前三位译成“十万”;第二个逗号前一位译成“百万”,前两位译成“千万”,前三位译成“亿”;第三个逗号前一位译成“十亿”,这样,依此类推,容易多了。汉译英时,也是把听到的数字用阿拉伯数字记录下来,从后往前,每三位用一逗号分开,然后用英语读出每位数就行了。读时,把握好第一个逗号前的数字读 “x thousand”,第二个逗号前读“x million”,第三个逗号前读“x billion”等规律。每个段位的其它数字按10进规律,依次读为“ten thousand”、“hundred thousand”、“ten million”、“hundred million”……
数字记录可采用各种简便符号或标点。如35,000可记录成“35,―”,用“―”表示“000”,或者只用“35,”表示逗号后有三个“0”。3,000,000可记录成“3,―,―”或者“3,,”。

用英语朗读下列数字:
1,369――one thousand three hundred and sixty-nine
2,010――two thousand and ten
4,705――four thousand seven hundred and five
6,003――six thousand and three
15,600――fifteen thousand six hundred
75,426,391――seventy five million, four hundred and twenty-six thousand, three hundred and ninety-one
564,000,000――five hundred and sixty-four million
1,250,000,000――one billion two hundred and fifty million

3.模糊数字的口译
口译中经常遇到一些模糊数字,如“几个”、“十几个”、“几十个”、“成百上千个”等等。模糊数字的口译虽也有一定的规律,但主要靠平时熟记,用时才能熟练自如,准确无误。注意以下模糊数字的口译
几个――some; a few; several; a number of
两、三个――two or three
五、六个――five or six
十几个――more than ten; over a dozen; less/no more than twenty
三十来个――about/ around thirty
几十个――dozens of
几十年――decades
十几岁――in one's teens
四十出头――a little/a bit over forty
五十岁左右――more or less fifty (years old); about fifty (years old)
近八十岁了――nearly/almost eighty (years old)
九十好几了――well over ninety (years old)
五点左右――around five o’clock
三天左右――three days or so
大约150米处――somewhere about 150 meters
好几百――hundreds of
成千上万,千千万万――thousands of
几十万――hundreds of thousands of
几百万――millions of
亿万――hundreds of millions of

4、百分数、小数、分数的口译
8%――eight percent
15%――fifteen percent
42%――forty-two percent
4.35%――four point three five percent
0.5%――point five percent
4.032――four point naught three two
71.006――seventy-one point naught naught six

1/2――one half; a half
1/3――one third
1/4――a quarter
3/5――three-fifths
7/8――seven-eighths
1/10――one-tenth
1/100――one-hundredth;one percent
1/1000――one-thousandth
14/1000――fourteen-thousandths
1/10000――one-ten thousandths
2-1/2――two and a half
4-2/3――four and two-thirds

5. 增/减倍数的口译
英汉倍数的表达有相似之处,也有不同。英汉互译时要特别注意不同的英语句型和表达方法所表示的倍数概念与汉语不同。英语用times 表示倍数。无论在何种句型中都表示乘的关系,即包括基数在内的倍数。请注意以下表示倍数的英语句型及其含义:
A is N times larger(longer,heavier…)than B.
A is larger(longer,heavier…)than B by N times.
A is N times as large(long,heavy…)as B.
这三句英语的含义都是“A的大小(长度、重量……)是B的N倍”,或者“A比B大(长、重……)N-1倍”。
根据以上规律,请看下面英语句子的汉译:
(1) The earth is 49 times the size of the moon.
地球的大小是月球的49倍。(或地球比月球大48倍)
(2) Since mid-century, the global economy has nearly quintupled, While the population has doubled, demand for grain has nearly tripled, and the burning of fossil fuels has increased nearly fourfold.
自本世纪中叶以来,全球经济增长了将近四倍,人口翻了一番。结果,粮食的需求增加了近两倍,石油燃料增加了近三倍。
(3) Within 30 years there will be twice as many urban people as countryside people in the world.
30年内,全世界的城市居民将是农村人口的两倍。
(4) Although London covers less than 400,000 acres, it needs nearly 50 million acre-----125 times its area-----to provide it with food, timber, and other resources, and to absorb its pollution.
虽然伦敦占地不到40万英亩,却需要近5000万英亩的土地――125倍于它本身的面积――来供给它食品,原木和其他资源,并吸收它产生的污染物。
    汉语倍数的表示法归纳起来有两类:第一类表示是(原数的)几倍,几倍于(原数)或增加到(原数的)几倍。第二类表示(比原数)大几倍或(比原数)增加了几倍;这两类说法含义不同。第一类表示包括基数在内的倍数,与英语倍数表示法的含义相同。第二类表示净增倍数。因此,汉语倍数的英译首先要区分不同含义,选用恰当的句型,灵活准确地表达。如果用能N times/表示英语的包括基数在内的倍数,那么汉语的第二类表示“增加了几倍”的英译就要用 (N+1) times 来表示。例如:

去年这个公司手机的销量增长了近一倍(为原来的两倍)。
The sales volume of portable phones of this company increased nearly twice last year.
The sales volume of portable phones of this company nearly doubled last year.

汉语增加倍数的说法很多,英译时,首先要仔细区分是包括基数在内的增加倍数还是净增倍数,然后决定用N times 还是(N+1)times 来表达。例如:

(1) 过去20年中,中国的国内生产总值增长了近五倍。
In the past 20 years, China’s gross domestic product increased nearly six times.
(2) 1978年至1997年,中国人均生产总值增长了3.4倍。
China’s per capita GDP went up by 4.4 times between 1978 and 1997.
(3) 中国城镇居民人均居住面积由1978年的3.6平方米提高到1997年的8.8平方米,增加1.4倍。
The per capita living space for urban residents in China expanded from 3.6 square meters in 1978 to 8.8 square meters in 1997, a rise of 2.4 times.

(4) 1949年至1998年, 中国的粮食总产量由1.1亿吨增加到5.1亿吨, 增长3.5倍, 年平均增长3.1%, 是人口增长率的2.5倍。
China's total grain output increased from 110 million tons in 1949 to 510 million tons in 1998, or an increase of over 4.5 times, with an average annual growth rate of 3.1 percent, 2.5 times that of the population growth.

(5) 1997年, 全国高等学校在校生总数为608万人, 其中研究生18万人, 分别是1979年的2.2倍和9.6倍。
In 1997,6.08 million students were studying in colleges and universities, including 180,000 postgraduates, 2.2 times and 9.6 times the figures of 1979 respectively.

由于汉语很少用“减少了若干倍”的说法,而多用“减少了百分之几”或“减少了几成”的说法,因此,减少多用百分数和分数表示。例如:

(1) 由于水灾,去年的收成减少了三成。
Owing to flood, the crop last year was declined by 30 percent.
(2) 该公司的员工裁减了近三分之一,开支减少了四分之一。
The personnel of the company have been reduced nearly by one-third and the expenses by one-fourth.
(3) 1998年,政府机构改革目标实现。国务院下设部门从40个减少到29个,人员减少了近一半。
In 1998,the targets of restructuring governmental institutions were met. Departments under the State Council were reduced from 40 to 29 and personnel were cut nearly by half.

2007-12-08 17:00:19 来自青青岛社区
回复:

6.        增/减百分比的口译
“增/减了百分之几”英语和汉语的含义一致,都表示净增或净减百分数。英汉增/减百分数的表示法有以下几种:
1) 增/减了……%
increase/rise/grow…%
decrease/drop/fall/sink …%
或者
increase/rise/grow/go up by …%
decrease/drop/fall/go down by …%
例如:

Between 1986 and 1987, Nike's sales dropped 18 percent and profits sank by more than
40 percent as a result of competition with Reebok.
与“锐步”鞋业竞争的结果,从1986到1987年, 耐克(鞋)的销售额下降了18%,利润下降了40%多。
(1)        By putting out more than one new shoe style everyday on average, in 1995 and 1996,
Nike's sales and profits grew 71 percent and 80 percent respectively;meanwhile, Nike's closest rival Reebok grew just nine percent in the same period.
靠平均每天推出一个以上新(鞋)款式,1995到1996,耐克的销售额和利润分别上涨了71%和80%。而同期最接近耐克的竞争对手锐步只上涨了9%。
(3) Procter & Gamble just raised prices on its paper products by as much as 8%.
(美国) 普罗科特―甘布尔公司刚刚把他们的纸制品价格提高了8%。
(4) Spending on non-durables-----everything from soap flakes to razors to tennis shoes-----rose 30% last year.
去年非耐用品,从皂片、剃须刀到网球鞋的消费上升了30%。
(5) In the fiscal year of 2000, ending on March 30, export slumped 11.3 percent in Taiwan, 10 percent in Thailand, 9.9 percent in South Korea and 2.4 percent in Hong Kong. However, the Chinese mainland posted a respectable 7.5 percent rate in the first quarter.
在3月30日刚刚结束的2000财政年度,台湾的出口猛跌了11.3%,泰国10%、南韩9.9%、香港2.4%。然而,中国大陆却公布了第一季度7.5%的可观增长。
(6) In America, the number of people engaged in farming as their principle of occupation fell to 961,560 in 1997, down 8.7 percent from 1992, while the number between (the age of) 25 to 34 fell 28 percent.
在美国以农业为主要职业的人数1997下降到961,560人,比1992下降了8.7%,而年龄在25到34岁的人数下降了28%。

2) 与……相比,增/减了……%
increase/rise/grow /go up by …% (as) compared with /as against / as opposed to / over…
decrease/drop/fall/go down by …% (as) compared with /as against / as opposed to /over…
例如:

(1) 1999年,普通高校招生规模比上年扩大了47.4%。
University and college enrollment in 1999 increased by 47.4 percent over the previous year.
    (2) 同1997年相比,1998年工业排污减少了11.6%;家庭排污增加了2.6%。
Compared with 1997, the discharge of industrial wastewater dropped by 11.6 percent, while that of domestic sewage rose by 2.6 percent in 1998.
(3) 因受亚洲金融危机的冲击,1998年中国进出口总额比上年下降0.4%,其中进口总额下降1.5%;出口总额增长0.5%。
As a result of Asian financial crises, China’s total volume of import and export in 1998 dropped by 0.4 percent over the previous year, of which the volume of import went down by 1.5 percent, and the value of export went up by 0.5 percent.

3) 增/减率
be …% increase/ rise /growth…
be …% decrease/drop /decline…
an increase / a rise / a growth rate of …%
a decrease / drop / decline of …%
be …% up /down …
be up / down…%
例如:

1999年,中国外贸出口达1949亿美元,比上年增长6.1%。
China’s total exports reached US$194.9 billion in 1999, a rise of 6.1 percent over the previous year.
1998年,中国全年海外游客入境人数6348万人次,比上年增长10.2%, 国际旅游收入达126亿美元, 增长4.4%。
In 1998, China received 63.48 million tourists from overseas, up by 10.2 percent. Income of foreign exchange from tourism reached 12.6 million US dollars, up 4.4 percent.

4) 增/减具体数字的英译也可用 “by” +具体数字来表示
例如:

我国水土流失面积每年以10,000平方公里的速度在扩大。目前,水土流失面积已达367万平方公里,占总土地面积将近38%。
The area of soil erosion in China has been increasing by 10,000 square km. annually to 3.67 million square km. at present, accounting for nearly 38 percent of the total land area.
由于低温多雨的影响, 我国夏粮减产1460万吨。
China's output of summer grain declined by 14.6 million tons due to low temperature and rainy days during the growing period.

汉语增/减百分数的英译还有一些其它表示法,但不管用什么方法,英语的增/减百分数都是净增/减数。
实践是训练数字互译的根本途径。口译教学要集中一段时间专门进行数字口译训练。译员只有经过大量反复的数字口译实践才能掌握英汉数字互译的不同特点和规律,达到数字互译脱口而出,快速、准确的程度。


三、习语、引语的口译

口译实践中,译员经常会遇到习语、引语的互译。特别是为国家元首、高级官员、文化人士、社会名流做口译时,译员会发现他们在事先精心准备的讲话或随意交谈中, 时常出其不意的借用本国或外国习语,引用名人或名著中的妙语佳句来表达自己的立场、观点或赞颂对方的民族和文化。 例如,英国前首相撒切尔和美国前几届总统访华时,都在不同场合的讲话中有意引用中国习语或引语,借以表达他们的立场和观点。
    美国总统尼克松1972年1月访华时在宴会祝酒词中引用毛泽东主席诗词中的话。他说:Chairman has written: So many deeds cry out to be done, and always urgently; the world rolls on, time presses. Ten thousand years are too long; seize the day, seize the hour! This is the hour. This is the day for our two people… (毛出席写过:多少事,从来急;天地转,光阴迫。一万年太久,只争朝夕!现在就是我们两国人民只争朝夕的时候了……)
   英国首相撒切尔在她1982年9月的访华讲话中引用唐代诗人的佳句:In a poem addressed to a departing friend, one of your Tang poets said: “provided our friendship survives, distances mean very little; although dwelling on far horizons we can still be as near neighbors. ” (在一首送别朋友的诗中,贵国唐代一位诗人曾写道:“海内存知己,天涯若比邻。”)
    美国总统里根1984年4月访华时在人民大会堂的讲演中说: We only regret that our visit is so brief that we can only look at the flowers while riding on horseback,But you have a saying from the Book of Han which says: “To see a thing once is better than hearing about it a hundred times.(遗憾的是我们的行程太匆忙,只能走马观花地看一看。但你们在《汉书》中也有一句话,叫做“百闻不如一见”。)他在欢迎宴会的祝词中说:And as a saying from the Book of Changes goes, “ if two people are of the same mind, their sharpness can cut through metal.” (正如你们《易经》中一句话说的那样,“二人同心,可以断金”。)
美国总统乔治q布什在他1989年2月的访华讲话中说: Let us plant trees together, so that the next generation, yours and ours can sit together in the shade.(让我们来一起种树,这样,我们的后代就能一起在树下乘凉。)
美国总统克林顿1998年6月访华时在国宴祝词中说: In so many different ways, we are upholding the teachings of Mencius, who said: “ A good citizen in one community will befriend the other citizens of the community; good citizens of the world will befriend of the other citizens of the world.” (我们是以如此不同的方式在维护孟子的教导,他说:“一乡之善士斯友一乡之善士,天下之善士斯友天下之善士。”)
    同样,江泽民主席访美时在哈佛大学的演讲中引用中国古代思想家的话“亲仁善邻,国之宝也。”( Loving people and treating neighbors kindly are most valuable to a country ) 他在为他举行的欢迎宴会的讲话中引用了美国诗人朗费罗的诗句:“只要行动起来,我们每个明天都会比今天进步。”“行动起来吧,让我们马上就开始。”(But to act that each tomorrow finds us farther than today. Act-----act in the living present.)
    朱F基总理1999年4月访美时,在一次记者招待会上回答某记者有关人权问题的提问时, 引用了“民为贵,社稷次之,君为轻。”的古语,( The people are the most important element in a state. Next are the gods of land and grain; least is the ruler himself. ) 表明中国向来十分重视人权问题。  
    任何一种语言的习语、引语都与使用该语言的民族的历史、经济、文化、风俗习惯、价值观念、地理位置等密切相关。因此,习语、引语有明显的民族特色,是人民群众智慧的结晶,是经过长期使用而提炼出来的妙语名言。习语、引语准确、快速、流利的互译可以简明、生动、形象、有力地表达说话人的思想、观点和情感,增强语言的魅力和表达效果。习语、引语的口译也是译员经常遇到的难题之一。那么,口译中译员怎样才能准确、快速、生动形象地进行习语、引语的互译呢?
   习语就其广义而言,包括成语、俗语、谚语、歇后语等。习语、引语的成功口译主要靠译员两种语言的扎实功底,包括对两种语言的词汇、文学、文化背景知识的丰富积累和口译技巧的熟练掌握。习语的口译主要有三种方法:直译、直译与转换相结合和意译法。
         
1. 直译法
对结构和意义上完全对应的习语应采用对等直译法。把原语的习俗、比喻移植到译入语中,这样既能确切地表达原意,又能保留原语生动、形象、鲜明的民族色彩。直译是习语口译中最容易、最便捷,也是效果最佳的译法。英汉两种语言中很多习语,包括很多汉语歇后语都可以采用直译法。这是英汉两种文化互相交流和两种语言相互溶入的结果。以下英汉习语的互译就属这一类。

英语习语的汉译
stony heart / have a heart of stone           铁石心肠
    plain sailing                            一帆风顺
    in black and white                       白纸黑字
    flesh and blood                          亲骨肉;亲人                    
    as firm as a rock                         坚如磐石  
    to be led by the nose                      被牵着鼻子走
    to show one's cards                       摊牌
    to be armed to the teeth                    武装到牙齿
    to turn a deaf ear to…                     充耳不闻
    to pick bones from an egg                  鸡蛋里面挑骨头
    Facts speak louder than words.              事实胜于雄辩
    Failure is the mother of success.             失败乃成功之母
    Honesty is the best policy.                  诚实是上策         
    Children and fools tell the truth.             童愚吐真言
    Evil is rewarded with evil.                  恶有恶报
    Content is happiness.                      知足者常乐
    Know your own faults before blaming others for theirs.
    欲责他人,应先知己过;欲正人,先正己。
    One swallow does not make a summer.        一燕难成夏。

  汉语习语的英译

一心一意   with one heart and one mind
沧海一滴   a drop in the ocean
轻如鸿毛   as light as a feather
实事求是   to seek truth from facts
一见如故  to feel like old friends at the first meeting
同甘共苦   to share each other's joys and hardships
    掩耳盗铃   to plug one's ears while stealing a bell
知识就是力量。  Knowledge is power.
一寸光阴一寸金, 寸金难买寸光阴。  An inch of time is worth an inch of gold,but an inch of gold cannot purchase an inch of time.
一回生,两回熟。  First meeting, strangers; second meeting, old friends.
一年之计在于春。   The whole year's work depends on a good start in spring.
一鸟在手远胜两鸟在林。  A bird in hand is worth two in the bush.
兔子尾巴――长不了。  Like a rabbit tail-----it cannot grow any longer-----it won't last long.
搬起石头砸自己的脚――自作自受  to lift a rock only to drop it on one's own feet-----to suffer from what one has done
鳄鱼掉眼泪――假慈悲 crocodile shedding tears------pretending to be benevolent

2.  直译和转换相结合
    对一些结构上对应或部分对应,比喻相似、意思相近的习语应采用直译和转换相结合的方法,对等部分直译,不对等部分进行适当转换。按照英汉两种语言各自的习俗、比喻和习惯表达方法译出,做到既能确切表达原意,又符合译入语的习俗和比喻。 以下习语就是采用这种方法互译的。
   
    as blind as a bat                           有眼无珠
    as timid as a hare                          胆小如鼠
on pins and needles                         如坐针毡
as poor as a church mouse                   一贫如洗
to kill two birds with one stone               一箭双雕      
    to wake up a sleeping dog                    打草惊蛇
to beat the dog before the lion                 杀鸡给猴看
Lock the door after the horse is stolen.          亡羊补牢。   
    He who takes charge knows the responsibility.   不当家不知柴米贵。
    Poor by condition,rich by ambition.           人穷志不短。
    Where there is a will ,there is a way.            事在人为。
    It takes two to make a quarrel.                一个巴掌拍不响。
    As a man sows,so he shall reap.              种瓜得瓜, 种豆得豆。
    Don't wash your dirty linen in public.           家丑不可外扬。
    Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.            情人眼里出西施。   
         
3. 意译
    还有一类习语,在结构和字面意思上,英汉两种语言似乎无相近之处。其确切的意思有时难以捉摸。遇到这一类习语,译员要根据交谈双方的话题、意图及谈话的背景和上下文意思等因素,充分理解所用习语的含义,采用意译、意译加注和其它变通方法,最重要的是译出话语的真正含义。同时,尽可能的保留原语的民族和地方色彩。不要按字面意思死译,以免造成歧义。以下习语的口译就属这一类。
    a far cry from…                           与……相差甚远;大不相同
     to face the music                           勇于承担后果
     to spill the beans                           不慎泄密
     to be up to one's ears                        有许多事情要做;忙于
     to beat around the bush                      旁敲侧击,转弯抹角
     to cut corners                              节约
     to hold one's horses                         别忙;耐心点;别沉不住气
     in one's element                            在行;擅长
     on one's toes                               机灵
     once in a blue moon                         极难得;千载难逢
     to see eye to eye                            与(某人)看法一致
     straight from the shoulder                    直截了当
     to take something with a grain of salt           对某事半信半疑或不全信
     to put all one's eggs in one basket              孤注一掷; 冒险
     to teach one's grandmother to such eggs         班门弄斧;好为人师
     to put the cart before the horse                本末倒置
     to miss the boat                            坐失良机
to burn the candle at both ends                过分耗费精力
     to poke one's nose into…                    探听; 干涉
     to play for one's own hand                   为自己的利益而做
     to pull wool over one's eyes                  蒙蔽某人
     to call a spade a spade                       实话实说, 直言不讳
Birds of a feature flock together.               物以类聚, 人以群分。
     Love me; love my dog.                      爱吾及犬;爱屋及乌。      
Rome was not built in a day.               罗马不是一天建成的; 伟业非一日可成; 冰冻三尺, 非一日之寒。                              
     Half the world knows not how the other half lives. 富人不知穷人苦; 饱汉不知饿汉饥。
                                          
有些汉语习语、俗语、歇后语有强烈而浓厚的民族色彩,意译不能确切表达原意。必须采用意译加注,说明必要的历史文化背景,才能很好传达原意。例如:

卧薪尝胆  to sleep on brushwood and taste gall-----to undergo self-imposed hardships so as
to strengthen one’s resolve to wipe out a national humility;to endure hardships to accomplish
some ambition.
望子成龙  to hope one’s child will become somebody in the future;to hope one’s child will
have a bright future; to hold high hopes for one’s child
不到长城非好汉。 He who fails to reach the Great Wall is not a true hero;not stop until one’s
aim is obtained
八仙过海,各显神通。  The Eight Immortals crossing the sea-----each shows his/her special prowess (in the legend, they were described as fairies with different magic arts);Like the Eight Immortals soaring the ocean, each of you should show your true worth.
打破砂锅――问(纹)到底 breaking an earthenware pot -----(lit)-cracked to the bottom;
(pun) interrogate thoroughly;to get to the bottom of a matter

引语的口译主要靠译员平时的勤学和积累。一个成功的译员不仅要有熟练的英汉语言技能,而且要有广博的英汉文学、历史、文化知识,掌握一定数量的英汉名人格言、经典佳句。因此,译员只有平时用心铭记,注意收集,不断充实,用时才能左右逢源,得心应手。下边是一些广为流传的英汉名人格言和经典佳句,配有英汉译文,可供口译学习者参考。

英语引语
What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet. 名称
有什么关系?我们叫做玫瑰花的,叫别的名字同样芬芳。
To care for wisdom and truth and improvement of the soul is far better than to seek money and
honor and reputation. 获得智慧,寻求真理,并使心灵美好,远比追求金钱、荣誉和名声好得多。
Knowledge is like the spring water under ground---the deeper you dig, the clearer is the water.
知识好像地下的泉水,掘得越深越清澈。
Waste not, want not. 旧的不去,新的不来。
Carve your name on hearts but not on marbles. 把你的名字刻在人们的心上,而不是大理石上。
Time is a versatile performer. It flies, marches on, heals all wounds, runs out and will tell. 时间是多才多艺的表演者。它能飞逝,能大步向前,能治愈一切创伤, 能消失得无影无踪,也能揭露真相。
Time is money; trust is gold. 时间是金钱,信用是金子。
In the business world, everyone is paid in two coins: cash and experience. Take the experience first; the cash will come later. 在商业世界里,每个人都会获得两种形式的报酬:现钞和经验。最好先获得经验,这样现钞就会随之滚滚而来。
Seize the present; trust the future as little as you may. 抓住现在;尽量少指望未来。
Money is a bottomless sea, in which honor, conscience, and truth may be drowned. 金钱是深不可测的海洋,能淹没廉耻、良心和是非感;金钱是一个无底大海,节操、良心和真理可能在里面淹死。
Economy is not only a great virtue, but also a great revenue. 节约不仅是一大美德,而且是一大财源。
At twenty years of age, the will reigns; at thirty the wit; and at forty, the judgment. 二十岁时起支配作用的是意志,三十岁时是机智,四十岁时是判断。
Contentment is natural wealth; luxury is artificial poverty. 知足是天然的财富,奢侈是人为的贫困。
Money recommends a man everywhere. 钱使一个人畅行无阻。
Riches are gotten with pain, kept with care, and lost with grief. 财富得之不易,存之忧虑,失之悲痛。
Time and tide wait for no man. 时光如逝水,岁月不待人。
One today is worth two tomorrows. 一个今天抵得上两个明天。

汉语引语
己所不欲,勿施于人。Do not do to others what you would not have them do to you.
知己知彼,百战不殆。Know the enemy and know yourself, and you can fight a hundred battles with no danger of defeat.
贫贱不能移,威武不能屈。He is not to be subdued by force not swerved by poverty.
国家兴亡,匹夫有责。The fortune of a country depends on the people in it.
识实务者为俊杰。A man who knows where his interest lies will succeed.
流水不腐,户枢不蠹。Running water does not get stale; a door hinge is never worm-eaten.
三人行,必有我师。When I walk in the company of three men, there must be a teacher of mine.
一日为师,终生为父。 He who teaches me one day is my teacher for life.
    学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。Learning without thought means labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.
业精于勤,荒于嬉。Achievement is founded on diligence and wasted upon recklessness.
勤能补拙。Diligence redeems stupidity.
一言既出,驷马难追。A word once spoken cannot be taken back even by a team of four horses.
一人之失,百人之师。A past mistake of one serves as a good lesson for all.
人勤地不懒。If the tiller is industrious, the farmland is productive.
前事不忘,后事之师。Repent what is past;avoid what is to come.
兼听则明,偏听则暗。 Listen to both sides and you will be enlightened;heed only one side and you will be benighted.
若要人不知,除非己莫为。If you don’t want people to know about it, don’t do it.
其身正,不令而行;其身不正,虽令不行。If the ruler is personally upright, all will go well even though he does not give order. But if he is not personally upright, even though he gives orders, they will not be obeyed.
悬崖勒马犹未晚,船到江心补漏迟。 It’s just in time to rein in at the brink of the precipice, but it’s too late to mend the ships leak in the middle of the river.
“人固有一死,或重于泰山,或轻于鸿毛”。为人民利益而死,重于泰山。 Though death befalls all men alike, it may weightier than Mount Tai or lighter than a feather. To die for the people is weightier than Mount Tai.
先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐。 Be concerned about the affairs of state before others, and enjoy comfort after others. Be the first to feel concern about state affairs and the last to enjoy yourself.

2007-12-08 17:00:53 来自青青岛社区
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口译练习3-2

1. 视译下列汉语数表:

2000 年世界前10名国家的有关经济指数

国家排名           国内生产总值            国家排名      人均国内生产总值
(单位:百万美元)                           (美元)
1.美国            7,433,517            1. 卢森堡          45,360
2.日本            5,149,185            2. 瑞士            44,350
3.德国            2,364,632            3. 日本            40,940
4.法国            1,533,619            4. 百慕大          34,670
5.英国            1,152,136            5. 挪威            34,510
6.意大利          1,140,484            6. 丹麦            32,100
7.中国               906,079            7. 新加坡          30,550
8.巴西               709,591            8. 德国            28,870
9.加拿大             569,899            9. 澳大利亚        28,110
10.西班牙            563,249            10. 美国           28,020

旅游业前10名
                         (单位:百万美元)

1.美国            61,137              6. 澳大利亚   14,618
2.法国            27,527              7. 德国       12,810
3.意大利          27,451              8. 香港       9,604
4.西班牙          25,701              9. 瑞士       9,364
5.英国            19,133             10. 中国       8,733

                    每1000人拥有计算机数

1.新加坡          409.2                6. 丹麦        359.5
2.美国            406.9                7. 瑞典        350.4     
3.瑞士            395.1                8. 芬兰        311.3
4.澳大利亚        361.5                9. 荷兰        281.9      
5.挪威            360.7               10. 加拿大      270.7  

2. 听译下列英语短文(英译汉):
World Population

With its two giants, China and India, Asia is the home of the majority of the world’s 6 billion human inhabitants,and Africa the second most popular continent. The UN population fund said in its 1998 report on population growth, Asia counts 3.5 billion people. Its most populous countries are China, with 1.2 billion plus another 6.3 million in Hong Kong and India with 975.8 million, followed far behind by Indonesia with 125.9 million and Bangladesh with 124 million.
India, which has continued to hold the record for a higher birth rate than China, is expected to grow in the year 2025 to 1.3 billion residents.
The projected population for all of Asia in the year 2025 is 4.7 billion.
In Africa, the UN Population Fund reported counted 778.5 million residents, with 1.4 billion anticipated in 2025.
Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country with 121.8 million residents. Egypt is next with 65.7 million, followed by Ethiopia with 62.1 million, the Democratic Republic of Congo with 49.2 million, and South Africa with 44.3 million.
Nigeria, the DRC and Ethiopia are expected to double their population in one generation by the year 2025.
The European continent counts 729.4 million residents, with Russia still the most populous country at 147.2 million, though its population growth is declining. Germany is next with 82.4 million.
Europe, according to the UN report is the sole continent whose population is expected to decline, dropping to 701.1 million residents in the year 2025.
North America, with the United States and its 273.8 million residents counts 304.1 million people, though the number is expected to rise to 369 million in 2025.


3.听译下列汉语短文(汉译英):  

2000年第五次全国人口普查主要数据

国家统计局今天公布了2000年第五次全国人口普查结果:

一、总人口
    全国总人口为129533万人。其中:
    祖国大陆31个省、自治区、直辖市(不包括福建省的金门、马祖等岛屿,下同)和现役军人的人口共126583万人。
    香港特别行政区人口为678万人。
    澳门特别行政区人口为44万人。
台湾省和福建省的金门、马祖等岛屿人口为2228万人。

二、人口增长
祖国大陆31个省、自治区、直辖市和现役军人的人口,同第四次全国人口普查1990年7月1日0时的113368万人相比,十年零四个月共增加了13215万人,增长11.66%。平均每年增加1279万人,年平均增长率为1.07%。

三、家庭户人口
祖国大陆31个省、自治区、直辖市共有家庭户34837万户, 家庭人口为119839万人,平均每个家庭户的人口为3.44人,比1990年第四次全国人口普查的3.96人减少了0.52人。

四、总人口性别构成
祖国大陆31个省、自治区、直辖市和现役军人的人口中,男性为65355万人, 占总人口的51.63%;女性为61228万人,占总人口的48. 37% 。 性别比(以女性为100,男性对女性的比例)为106U74。

五、年龄构成
祖国大陆31个省、自治区、直辖市和现役军人的人口中,0-14 岁的人口为28979万人。占总人口的22.89%;15-64 岁的人口为88793 万人, 占总人口的70.15%;65岁及以上的人口为8811万人,占总人口的6.96%。同1990年第四次全国人口普查相比,0-14岁人口的比重下降了4.80个百分点,65岁及以上人口的比重上升了1.39个百分点。

六、民族构成
祖国大陆31个省、自治区、直辖市和现役军人的人口中,汉族人口为115940万人,占总人口的91.59%;少数民族人口为1064万人,占总人口的8.41%。同1990年第四次全国人口普查相比,汉族人口增加了11692万人,增长了11.22%;各少数民族人口增加了1523万人,增长了16.70%。

七、各种受教育程度人口
祖国大陆31个省、自治区、直辖市和现役军人的人口中,接受大学(指大专以上)教育的4571万人;接受高中(含中专)教育的14109万人;接受初中教育的42989万人;接受小学教育的45191万人(以上各种受教育程度的人包括各类学校的毕业生、肄业生和在校生)。
同1990年第四次全国人口普查相比,每10万人中拥有各种受教育程度的人数有如下变化:具有大学程度的由1422人上升为 3611 人;具有高中程度的由8039 人上升为11146人;具有初中程度的由 23344 人上升为33961人;具有小学程度的 37057人下降为 35701人。
祖国大陆31个省、自治区、直辖市和现役军人的人口中,文盲人口( 15 岁及15岁以上不识字或识字很少的人)为 8507 万人,同1990年第四次全国人口普查相比,文盲率由15.88%下降为 6.72% ,下降了9.16个百分点。

八、城乡人口
祖国大陆 31个省、自治区、直辖市的人口中,居住在城镇的人口 45594万人,占总人口的 36.09% ;居住在乡村的人口80739 万人,占总人口的63.91%。同 1990 年第四次全国人口普查相比,城镇人口占总人口的比重上升了9.86个百分点。


口译练习3-3

口译下列英汉习语

heart and soul                        
  to make a big fuss about                    
ups and downs      
to fish in the troubled water                                    
  to bite off more than one can chew      
  to get on one's high horse                              
to shut one's eyes against …                             
to cry up wine and sell vinegar               
  to kick down the ladder                  
to have a ( good ) head on one's shoulder      
  to put a spoke in one's wheels
to be at the end of one's tether/rope         
  A rising tide lifts all boats.
  Great minds think alike.                  
Laziness in youth spells regret in old age.   
A snow year, a rich year.            
  You cannot make bricks without straw.   
Don't cross a bridge till you come to it.
Make hay while the sun shines.            
Every medal has two sides.  
            
走马观花  
坐山观虎斗
水中捞月
廉洁奉公
光明正大
倒行逆施
画饼充饥
拔苗助长  
借花献佛   
坐收渔人之利
熟能生巧
不到黄河心不死
黄金有价,知识无价。
血浓于水,疏不间亲。
天下无难事,只怕有心人。
路遥知马力,日久见人心。
竹篮打水―― 一场空
黄鼠狼给鸡拜年――没安好心  
三个臭皮匠, 赛过诸葛亮。
棺材上画老虎――吓死人


练习参考答案

练习3-2
英译汉
由于有中国和印度这两个人口大国,亚洲已成为世界60亿人中大多数人的家园,而非洲则是世界第二人口大陆。联合国人口基金组织1998人口增长的报告说,亚洲有35亿人口。人口最多的是中国,有12亿,再加上香港的630万。印度有97580万人口。其次是印度尼西亚,有12590万。再次是孟加拉国,有12400万人口。
印度的人口增长率持续超过中国。预计到2025年,印度的人口将达到13亿。
到2025年,亚洲的人口将达到47亿。
根据联合国人口基金组织的报告,非洲有77850万居民。预计到2025年,非洲的人口将达到14亿。
尼日利亚是非洲人口最多的国家,有12180万居民,其后依次是:埃及,6570万;埃
塞俄比亚,6210万;刚果民主共和国,4920万;南非, 4430万。
预计到2025年, 也就是一代人以后, 尼日利亚,刚果民主共和国和埃塞俄比亚的人口都将翻一番。
欧洲大陆有72940万人口,其中俄罗斯有14720万人,虽然俄国的人口增长率在下降, 但目前仍是欧洲人口最多的国家。其次是德国,有824 0万人。
根据联合国的报道,欧洲是唯一人口负增长的洲。 到2025年,欧洲的人口将下降到71000万。
北美洲有30410万人口,其中美国占27380万。预计到2025年,北美洲的人口将达到36900万。

汉译英

Figures of the 2000 Population Census

The National Bureau of Statistics releases the result of the 2000 population census:

I. Total Population
China has a population of 1,295.33million. Of which:
The total population of the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (excluding Jinmen and Mazu islands of Fujian Province hereafter) and of servicemen of the mainland of China was 1,265.83 million.
The population of Hong Kong SAR was 6.78 million.
The population of Macao SAR was 440,000.
The population of Taiwan Province and of Jinmen, Mazu and a few other islands of Fujian Province was 22.28 million.

II. Population Growth.
Compared with the population of 1,133.68 million from the 1990 population census (with zero hour of July 1, 1990 as the reference time), the total population of the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and the servicemen of the mainland of China increased by 132.15 million persons, or 11.66 percent over the past 10 years and 4 months. The average annual growth was 12.79 million persons, or a growth rate of 1.07 percent.

III. Population of Family Households.
In the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities of the mainland of China, there were 348.37 million family households with a population of 1,198.39 million persons. The average size of a family household was 3.44 persons, or 0.52 persons less as compared with the 3.96 persons of the 1990 population census.

Ⅳ. Sex Composition.
Of the people enumerated in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and servicemen of the mainland of China, 653.55 million persons or 51.63 percent were males; 612.28 million or 48.37 % females. The sex ratio (female=100) was 106---74.

Ⅴ. Age Composition.
Of the people enumerated in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and servicemen of the mainland of China, 289.79 million persons were in the age group of 0--14, accounting for 22.89 percent of the total population; 887.93 million persons in the age group of 15--64, accounting for 70.15 percent and 88.11 million persons in the age group of 65 and over, accounting for 6.96 percent. As compared with the results of the 1990 population census, the share of people in the age group of 0--14 was down by 4.80 percentage points, and that for people aged 65 and over was up by 1.39 percentage points.

Ⅵ. Composition of Ethnic Groups.
Of the people enumerated in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and servicemen of the mainland of China, 1,159.40 million persons or 91.59 percent were of Han ethnic group, and 106.43 million ethnic persons or 8.41 percent were of various minority ethnic groups. Compared with the 1990 population census, the population of Han people increased by 116.92 million persons, or 11.22 percent, while the population of various minority ethnic groups increased by 15.23 million persons, or 16.70 percent.

Ⅶ. Composition of Educational Attainment.
Of the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and servicemen of the mainland of China, 45.71 million persons had finished university education (referring to junior college and above); 141.09 million persons had received senior secondary education (including secondary technical school education); 429.89 million persons had received junior secondary education and 451.91 million persons had primary education (the educated persons included graduated and students in schools).
Compared with the 1990 population census, the following changes have taken place in the number of people with various educational attainments per every 100,000 people: number of people with university education increased to 3,611 from 1,422; number of people with senior secondary education increased to 11,146 from 8,039; number of people with junior secondary education increased from 23,344 to 33,961; and number of people with primary education decreased from 37,057 to 35,701.
Of the people enumerated in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and servicemen of the mainland of China, 85.07 million persons were illiterate (i.e. people over 15 years of age who cannot read or can read very little). Compared with the 15.88 percent of illiterate people in the 1990 population census, the proportion has dropped to 6.72 percent, or down by 9.16 percentage points.

Ⅷ. Urban and Rural Population.
In the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities of the mainland of China, there were 455.94 million urban residents, accounting for 36.09 percent of the total population; and that of rural residents stood at 807.39 million, accounting for 63.91 percent. Compared with the 1990 population census, the proportion of urban residents rose by 9.86 percentage points.

                        
练习3-3
英译汉
全心全意
大做文章
盛衰;沉浮;挫折
    浑水摸鱼   
    贪多嚼不烂;自不量力
    骄傲自大;盛气凌人
视而不见   
挂羊头,买狗肉
    过河拆桥
    有见识; 有能力
破坏某人的计划
穷途末路; 山穷水尽; 筋疲力尽
水涨船高。
英雄所见略同。
    少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。
瑞雪兆丰年。
    巧妇难为无米之炊。
车到山前必有路;船到桥头自然直。
乘晴晒草; 乘机行事; 勿失良机。
每个奖章都有两面; 凡事都有两重性。
汉译英
to look at the flowers while riding on horseback
to sit on the hill and watch tigers fight
to catch the moon in the water
to be honest in performing one’s official duties;to have integrity and always work in the interest of the public
to be just and honorable, open and aboveboard
to go against the trend of the times
to draw a cake to satisfy one's hunger
to try to help the rice shoots grow by pulling them upward
to present Buddha with borrowed flowers------ to borrow something to make a gift of it
to reap advantages from both sides without lifting a finger;to profit from others’ conflict
Practice makes perfect.
not to stop until one reaches the Yellow River――refuse to give up until all hope is gone; not stop until one reaches one’s goal
Gold has its price, but learning is beyond price.
Blood is thicker than water.
Nothing in the world is difficult for one who sets his mind to it.
A distant journey tests the strength of a horse and a long task proves the character of a man.
drawing water in a bamboo basket――all in vain
The weasel wishes Happy New Year to a chicken――harboring no good intention.
Tree cobblers with wits combined equal Zhuge Liang, the mastermind; the wisdom of the masses exceeds that of the wisest individual.
painting a tiger on a coffin――(lit) to frighten the dead; (pun/coll.) wanting to frighten somebody to death

2007-12-08 17:02:07 来自青青岛社区
回复:【┳⑦号小妖┳】

第二部分       Part  Two
口译实践       Interpretation Practice

第四单元       Unit  4
外事往来       Exchange of Visits


I.    阅读材料 Reading Material

第一篇 Passage 1

Cruising Down the Thames

(The Sino-British Trade Council has arranged a river trip for a Chinese trade delegation visiting the U.K. The Chinese guests are driven to Westminster Pier and are shown aboard a boat, cruising the Thames.)
H. A:  So, we are off down stream to Greenwich and someone from our office will meet us there
and to bring us a picnic. Since the weather is so good, I thought it would be pleasant to have lunch
in Greenwich Park before we visit the observatory.
G. A:  That sounds very nice. I love European parks and gardens. They are so different from ours.
H. B:  Greenwich Park is lovely, but the observatory is really interesting, and of course you can
stand astride the Greenwich meridian 0° line and have one foot in the Western Hemisphere and the
other in the Eastern.
G. B:  That'll be fun! I must take a photo!
H. B:  Look, everybody, we're about to set off. Before we do, have you noticed the Houses of
Parliament behind us and Westminster Abbey?
G. B:  Yes, we went there the other day. An interesting place. All the kings and queens of England
have been crowned there, haven't they?
H. B:  Yes, except Edward V, who was murdered and Edward VIII, the Duke of Windsor, the
present Queen's uncle, who gave up the throne to marry an American woman who was divorced
and therefore deemed to be unsuitable to be queen.
H. A:  Yes, and many famous men are buried there including kings and poets.
G. A:  And is that the dome of St Paul's Cathedral over there?
H. B:  Yes, indeed. The original cathedral was destroyed in the Fire of London in 1666, and this
one was built by Christopher Wren, one of our most famous architects. Now he is buried in the
cathedral along with several famous generals and admirals like Wellington and Nelson and artists
like Reynolds and Turner.      
G. C:  Oh, we must be approaching the heart of the City now. There's the Nat West Tower.
H. B:  Yes, it's the tallest building in the U.K. now. There was a lot of controversy over it when it
was built because formerly nothing was supposed to be higher than St. Paul's and people were not
in favor of it.
H. A:  I rather like it.
H. B:  Now we are just coming up to London Bridge.
G. A:  Oh yes, I learned the song when I was a student: “London Bridge is falling down”. Where
is Pudding Lane, where the fire started?
H. B:  It's behind that row of new office blocks. You can't see it from here. Oh, now we’re coming
to the Tower of London.
G. B:  Oh, splendid. What a sight!
H. B:  Yes, it's said to be the most perfect example of a medieval castle in England. It was built in
1078. Now it houses the crown jewels, which are on display to the public, but it is mainly     remembered for its function as a prison for people who offended the monarchy.
H. A:  Yes, 2 of Henry VIII’s 6 wives met their death here, by execution, simply because he was
bored with them and couldn't find any other way to get rid of them. In fact Anne Boleyn, his
second and most famous wife, is said to haunt the tower and wander the grounds at night with her
head under her arm!
G. A:  (Laughs) I wouldn't like to be a guard on duty late at night there, then. How spooky! No
wonder it is known as “the Bloody Tower”. But the guards do look rather splendid.
H. A:  Now we're at Tower Bridge. It's very unusual to have a bridge painted in blue and gold.
But I love it. It's really dramatic. The bridge opens up in the middle so that large ships can get
through. It's terribly exciting when you see it. A bell rings shortly beforehand and barriers come
down so that the cars can't be caught on the bridge as it starts to go up.
G. A:  That must be very impressive. The sights are really magnificent. Cities built on rivers have
so much character. Thank you so much for bringing us today. I am enjoying myself. How long will it take to get to Greenwich from here?
H. A:  Oh, we're almost there. It's only about another 15 minutes.

课文词语   Words and Expressions from the Text
cruising down the river                       畅游(此处指)泰晤士河
Westminster pier                            西敏寺码头
downstream                                顺流
observatory                                天文台
stand astride                                两脚分开站立
the Western Hemisphere                      西半球
Westminster Abbey                          西敏寺大教堂
The Duke of Windsor                         温莎王室的公爵
deem to be unsuitable                         认为不合适
the dome of St. Paul’s Cathedral                圣保罗大教堂的圆顶
admiral                                    海军将军;上将
the Nat West Tower                          国民西敏寺银行塔楼
controversy                                 争论;争议
the Tower of London                         伦敦塔
the monarchy                               君主制度
meet one’s death by execution                  处以死刑
haunt                                      (鬼魂等)常出没于某地
a guard on duty                              值勤的警卫
How spooky!                              多吓人哪!

第二篇Passage 2

Touring the Palace Museum  

(A Canadian guest is taken to the Palace Museum by the Chinese host. They walk towards the Golden River Bridges and tour the museum.)
H:  This is the Imperial Palace we call the Palace Museum. Before the 1911 revolution the palace
was off-limits to ordinary citizens, hence the Forbidden City. It was constructed in1420 during the
reign of Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty and has a history of nearly 600 years. Twenty-four emperors of the Ming and Qing Dynasties resided and ruled here. Though it was rebuilt and expanded many times during the two dynasties, it still retains its original layout. This former imperial palace has been turned into a museum, housing more than 900,000 pieces of treasures and imperial court relics of various dynasties. The museum receives thousands of tourists every day.                             
G:  Oh, it’s huge! There’s an inner and outer wall, moats, gates and it looks as if it’s the largest
fortress in the world.
H:  The moat is called the Golden River and the five white marble bridges the Golden River
Bridges. There are three gates leading to the palace. The central one was for the emperor only,
while the two side ones were for the civil and military officials as well as imperial clansmen. The
wall is 10 meters high and encloses nearly 800,000 square meters.
G:  Those watch towers at each corner, are those what are called ‘the grasshopper cages’?
H:  Yes. It is said one of the emperors admired a particularly intricate grasshopper cage one of
his craftsmen had constructed and asked that the idea be built into the watch towers.
G:  The scale of the museum is almost beyond the ability of the mind to understand.
H:  There are 9,999 buildings inside the museum, which is said to be a number symbolizing the
long life of the emperor.
G:  There’s a symbolism as well to the internal structure of the Imperial City.
H:  The main buildings are built on a central axis running from north to south, and the less
important buildings are on a line from east to west. The Imperial Palace is composed of two parts:
the outer court and the inner court. The front part facing Tian’anmen, is the outer court dominated
by three grand halls. It is where the emperor conducted his business: issuing proclamations, meeting visitors, beheading his enemies, etc. and performed his public ceremonies. Behind the outer court is the inner court lined up by three other halls along the central axis. It is the living area of the emperor and the empress. Now we are in the outer court.
G:  And this is the major building you see in all the pictures of the museum. Beautiful!
H:  Yes, this is Taihedian or the Hall of Supreme Harmony, the most magnificent and the best
example of ancient Chinese architecture in the country. You’ll be surprised to learn that it is made
of wood. According to decree, it had to be the tallest building in Beijing; no other one could build
higher.
G:  This is actually the ancient throne, isn’t it?
H:  Yes, this is where the emperor received his most important officials.
G:   He must have impressed them very much. After all this time, standing here, I’d have to say
I’m overawed by it all.
H:  This one is the Hall of Central Harmony. It was the emperor’s resting place, when he was on
his way to Taihedian. He also met members of his inner cabinet here. And the last building is the
place, where the emperor entertained his ministers and high-ranking officials on the lunar New
Year.
G:  These lesser halls and chambers ranged on both sides of the central buildings must have been
the living quarters.
H:  Yes, there are 12 courtyards in all, six on each side, here in the inner court. It is where the
emperor and the empress, imperial concubines, princes, princesses and all their attendants lived
and amused themselves.
G:  What a beautiful garden!
H:  Yes, we’re at the back of the Palace Museum now. It is called Yuhuayuan or the Imperial
Garden. All these trees are very ancient, and this hill is man-made. At the rear gate there is a gate
tower that used to contain drums and bells. At nightfall the bells would toll 108 times.
G:  The museum is remarkably well preserved.
H:  Yes, the entire museum is a national treasure and it is placed on the U.N. list of World
Cultural Heritage. The government has given high priority to its restoration.
G:  It is the largest and the most wonderful palace museum I’ve ever seen in the world. Thank
you for taking the time to show it to me.

课文词语   Words and Expressions from the Text
the Forbidden City                     “紫禁城”
off-limits                             禁入(区域)
moats                                护城河
fortress                               堡垒
watch towers                          角楼
grasshopper                           蝈蝈笼
intricate                              精致的
white marble                          汉白玉
conduct one’s business                  处理政务
issue proclamations                     (这里指)颁发诏书
behead                               斩首
perform public ceremonies.              主持典礼仪式
Hall of Supreme Harmony               太和殿
concubines                            嫔妃
Hall of Central Harmony                中和殿
Hall of Preserving Harmony             保和殿
decree                               命令: (这里指)圣旨
the Imperial Garden                    御花园   
World Cultural Heritage                 世界文化遗产

II.口译实践 Interpretation Practice

听译下列课文 Listen to the Following Passages and Interpret Them:
英汉交替 Interpretation from English into Chinese or Vice Versa

第一篇Passage 1           
      
相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
captain                                   机长
fasten your seat belt                                请系好安全带
hold EU Passports                          持欧盟国家护照
health declaration                           健康申报表
crew and cabin staff                         全体机组人员
passport control                             护照检查
flight number                               航班号
luggage trolley                              手推行李车
right-hand staircase                          右边的楼梯
Have you anything to declare?              你有什么要申报的吗?
International Trading Company              国际贸易公司
Sino-British Trade Council              中英贸易委员会
Have a pleasant journey!                            旅途愉快!
Charles Dickens portrays London as…        查尔斯&#8226;犹更斯把伦敦描写成……
中国土畜产品进出口公司                            Chinatuhsu (简称)
中国粮油进出口公司                        China Ceroilfood (简称)
中国机械进出口公司                        China Machimpex (简称)

(A Chinese trading delegation is arriving at Gatwick airport in London.)
Pilot: This is Captain Song speaking. We will shortly be landing at London's Gatwick. After we
have landed, please remain seated until the aircraft has come to a complete standstill and all the
warning lights have gone out. Please ensure that you have all your hand luggage with you when you leave the plane and that those passengers who do not hold EU passports have all filled out a landing-card and health declaration. Keep these to hand with your passport.
The weather in London is fair, almost 65°Fahrenheit, and there is a slight wind. Gatwick airport is situated on the very outskirts of the capital and there is a regular train service to Victoria station, which runs very 15 minutes and takes a half hour.
On behalf of the crew and cabin staff, I would like to thank you for flying CAAC and wish you a pleasant stay in U.K.

(The passengers get off the plane and are taken to passport control.)
周:   护照检查处有三个队,我们应该排哪一个?
AIRPORT OFFICIAL: This one here on the left, sir. You see, it says "NON-EU passports".         
周:   好的,队不太长而且移动的相当快,我们很快就会办完的。
周:   没用多少时间。下面该办什么了?我们到哪儿取行李?
A.O:  If you just wait here and watch these screens, you'll see your flight number come up and
then it'll tell you which number luggage bay you have to go to. Then follow the signs up the stairs
to the baggage hall, where you should find plenty of luggage trolleys.
周:   看,我们的号码出来了,是3号。我们从右边的楼梯上去。
A.O:  Have you anything to declare, sir?
周:   没有,谢谢。
A.O:  Then please proceed through the green gate marked "nothing to declare"

(The delegation clears the customs and go out into the arrival hall, where they are met)
Gordon:  Madam Li, how are you? How nice to see you again. Do you remember me Christopher
Gordon from the International Trading Co. We met several years ago.
李:  记得。我当然记得你戈登先生。又见面了,我真高兴。这一位一定是 中英贸易委员会
的戴维斯小姐喽。         
MISS DAVIS:  Yes. Philippe Davis. Very pleased to meet you. I hope you had a pleasant journey, not too tiring.
李:  不累。一路上不错,我还睡了一会儿哪,现在不怎么累。请允许我介绍一下我的同事
们。这位是中国机械进出口总公司的万夫人。这位是中国土畜产品进出口总公司的关先生。
这位是中国粮油进出口总公司的周先生。
D:        How do you do? Right, if we are all ready, then let's go and get the train. I've got the tickets
and we can take the luggage trolleys almost onto the platform.

(In the train)
D:         The journey doesn't take long, only about half an hour. It's a non-stop service to Victoria
station. We pass through some quite pretty countryside. When we cross the Thames into Victoria,
you get a great view along the river to your right of Westminster, the Houses of Parliament and
Big Ben.
李:         在英国还从来没有坐过火车,我觉得挺新鲜。
G:  At least the weather's fine. It's miserable to arrive in a new country in the rain, as I'm afraid
many visitors to England do, especially in autumn.
李:        伦敦雨多吗?
G:        Yes it does, especially in autumn. In fact there are more than 160 rainy days in London each
year. That’s why you always find people take umbrellas with them when they go out.  
李:        真有意思。我听说这里的季节变换就像一幅幅的图画一样。希望我们能有机会看看伦
敦的农村和海滨景色。
G:   I'm sure you will. As a matter of fact, Miss Davis has already made arrangements for you.
李:        那太好了。谢谢你,戴维斯小姐。
(On arrival at Victoria, they take a taxi to the hotel where they are going to stay.)

第二篇   Passage 2

相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
Prince Albert         奥伯特亲王
barges         驳船
Greenwich        格林威治
Tower Bridge                          塔桥
highly recommend        极力推荐   
smoked salmon        熏鲑鱼
a traditional French recipe        传统的法国烹饪法
squeeze some lemon over the fish        往鱼上挤一些柠檬汁
flavor        味道
a musical        音乐剧
extremely popular        很叫座; 极受欢迎
Covent Garden        科文特加登剧院
My Fair Lady        《卖花女》
Madame Butterfly        《蝴蝶夫人》
Swan Lake        《天鹅湖》
box        包厢

(Mr. Gordon has invited Madam Li and the rest of the delegation out to dinner on their first night in London. They have gone to a French restaurant, which overlooks the Thames. There they meet Mr. Gordon’s wife and some of his colleagues. The following is their conversation during dinner.)
G:   Do please sit down, everybody.
李:        谢谢。这儿的景致真美啊!那座灯火通明的桥是什么桥?
G:   That's Albert Bridge-----named after Queen Victoria's husband,Prince Albert. Barges used to
come up the river in the old days, bringing supplies in to London. Some still do, of course, but the
river is mainly used for pleasure now.
Mrs G: You can take a boat all the way from Greenwich to Hampton Court in the far west, and it
takes you under Tower Bridge through the city and on past the Houses of Parliament.
李:        一定很引人入胜。我们在这儿逗留期间,也许会有时间浏览一番的。
G:           Here is your menu card, Madam Li. My wife has chosen the menu. We always come here
on special occasions so we have tried most of the dishes and I can highly recommend Julia's
choice.
Mrs G: Thank you, darling. I thought we'd start with smoked salmon, followed by Duck al’
Orange, which is duck cooked in orange sauce-----a traditional French recipe for duck.
李:        味道一定不错。夫人点菜想的真周到, 我想你们一定知道,我们中国人爱吃鱼,我
们又都来自北京,北京最有名的一个菜是烤鸭,我很想尝尝用完全不同的方法烹调的鸭子。
Mrs G: Well, I hope you'll enjoy it. It's always fun to try new things. Ah, here's the salmon. Do
have some brown bread with it, and I recommend that you squeeze some lemon over the fish. It
brings out the flavor.
G:   Are you all happy drinking white wine? It's quite dry. I thought we'd stick to white as we're
having fish and poultry unless you'd prefer red,or something else altogether?
李:  不用了,我觉得白葡萄酒很好,谢谢。
G:    Do start everybody. Don’t stand on ceremony. Please feel at home.      
李:        戈登夫人, 你喜欢烹调吗?
Mrs G: Yes, as a matter of fact, I do, although I often have to fight to get into the kitchen because
Chris is quite expert. Now that the children are all away at university and school and there're only
the two of us, we tend to cook less. But, I must say, that after a hard day at the office, I love to get
into the kitchen for a change. I'm lucky; I have an appreciative family.   
G:   Yes, it's not only me that is appreciative. The other day Julia had taken a chicken out of
the oven to cool. She left it on the table while she went to the station to fetch me. When we got
back, we found the cat and the dog fast asleep under the kitchen table with a pile of chicken bones
between them.
李:        啊呀! 真的? 他们可真是美餐了一顿。说起猫,伦敦是不是在上演一个跟猫有关的名
剧。
Mrs G: Yes,it’s called Cats. Quite simply, and is a musical. It's based on a book of poems by
one of our most famous poets, T.S. Eliot. It has been running for several years and it is extremely
popular. You have to book about 6 months or even a year in advance.
李:        天哪!
G:   Do you like going to the theatre, Madam Li? Do you like opera or ballet? We wondered if
you and your colleagues would be interested in going to Covent Garden one evening while you are
in London?
李:        好啊, 我们很愿意。科文特加登剧院是很有名的。在中国,大家看过《茶花女》,都知
道这个地方。
Mrs G:  Oh, have you seen My Fair Lady in China? I love that film. It's one of my favorites.
But while you are here, there are both ballet and opera on at Convent Garden. The ballet is Swan
Lake. Which opera are they performing, Chris?
G:   I think it's Madame Butterfly-----Puccini. Which do you prefer, ballet or opera, Madam Li?
李:        两个都喜欢, 不过, 我一直想看《天鹅湖》。
Mrs G: Then that's settled. We'll try and get tickets---or may be a box for that. Certainly, if you
are going to a ballet as traditional as Swan Lake Covent Garden is the place to see it.

第三篇   Passage 3  

相关词语   Related Words and Expressions
美中友好代表团              US-China Friendship Delegation
中国人民对外友好协会        The Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign
西安分会                    Countries Xi’an Sub-association
会长                        president
有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎!    How happy we are to have friends coming from afar!
旅途好吗?                  How was your flight? / Did you have pleasant flight?
天高气爽                    It is often sunny and pleasant.
有什么手续要办吗?          Do you have to go through any formalities?
故宫博物馆                  the Palace Museum
颐和园                      the Summer Palace
天坛                        the Temple of Heaven
金字塔                      pyramid
新石器时代的文化            the Neolithic culture
大小雁塔                    the Big and the Small Wild Goose Pagoda
钟鼓楼                      the Bell and Drum Tower
兵马俑                      terra cotta warriors and horses
铜车马                      bronze chariots and horses
古迹遍地,文物荟萃          numerous historical sites and a wealth of cultural relics
物资集散地                  material distribution center
高等院校                    institutions of higher learning
科研所                      scientific research institute
科技综合实力                comprehensive strength in science and technology
世界500强(企业)          the world 500 strongest companies

(中国人民对外友好协会西安分会的会长和译员在机场等候一个来自美国堪萨斯市的美中友好代表团)
译:   我想你们是美国堪萨斯市来的美中友好代表团吧?
G:   Yes we are. We come from Kansas City.  
译:   你们好? 欢迎你们来西安。我是西安友协分会的译员,叫李明。这一位是友协分会
的会长王海先生。
会长:  你们好?欢迎来自堪萨斯市的朋友们!  
G:  How do you do?I'm Allan Silverman, head of the delegation. It is very kind of you to come
and meet us at the airport.
会: 有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎! 你们远道而来,我怎么能不来机场迎接你们呢。怎么样?
旅途好吗?   
G:  Very good. The plane was comfortable, and flight pleasant. It is quite warm here in Xi'an like the weather in Beijing. We stayed in Beijing for a week.
会: 是啊。秋天是这里最好的季节。天高气爽,正是旅游的最佳时节,又赶上了我们的国
庆节和中秋节。希望你们在西安过得愉快。   
译: 请问你们还有什么手续要办吗?
G:  No. I don't think so. We have our luggage with us. Everything is smooth.
译: 那我们现在就可以去宾馆了。汽车在外边等着我们。
G:  Thank you very much.

(在去宾馆的路上)
会: 西尔佛曼先生是第一次来西安吗?     
G:  Yes, and my first time to China. I have heard so much about your country, about Beijing, the
Great Wall and Xi'an. We've all longed to visit your country and meet your people. In Beijing, we
visited the Palace Museum, the Summer Palace, the Temple of Heaven, the Ming Tomb and the
Great Wall. Oh, Beijing is so beautiful! The Great Wall is so magnificent! Two of the World's
Eight Wonders are in China. We've seen one near Beijing, and are longing to see the 8th Wonder in
Xi'an.
会: 会的。你们会看到世界第八奇观的。正像一位外国朋友所说的:“到了埃及不看金字塔
不算去过埃及;到了中国不看兵马俑,不算来过中国。”   
G:        Yes, sure. That's why we are here in Xi'an.
会:        从机场到宾馆大约需要40分钟,我借此机会向各位简单介绍一下我们的城市西安。
G:   That’s wonderful
西安位于关中平原的中部,北临渭水,南接秦岭,是我国六大古都之冠,有3100年的
历史。西安古代称长安,意为长久平安。从公元前十一世纪起,先后有周、秦、西汉、隋、唐等十三个王朝在此建都,历时1100年。西安是我国古代建都最早,历时最长的都城。
从西汉时起,西安就同很多国家有友好往来。著名的“丝绸之路”就是从西安开始的。它使长安成为东方的文化中心。特别是到了唐代,长安成为世界上最大最繁华的都市之一。唐都长安有100多万人口,通过“丝绸之路”同南亚、中亚、欧洲乃至非洲国家有着频繁的商贸和文化交流。
五千年的文明史使西安古迹遍地,文物荟萃。这里有6000年前原始村落的遗址和新石器时代文化的半坡博物馆;中国有名的古代建筑――唐代的大、小雁塔,明代的钟、鼓楼和城墙;中国古代文化艺术的宝库――西安碑林;中国四大博物馆之一――陕西历史博物馆;中华民族的始祖――黄帝的陵墓;被誉为世界第八奇观的秦始皇兵马俑和铜车马。还有骊山脚下的温泉;西安周围秦、汉、唐几代帝王的陵墓;无数的宗教寺庙和自然风景区。所有这些都吸引着来自全国和全世界的游客,使西安成为世界旅游热点城市之一。
今日西安是陕西省省会,面积9900平方公里,人口675万多。西安位于中国地理位置的中心,是中国中西部重要的科技、文化、教育、金融和制造业中心,最大的商贸中心和物资集散地,也是闻名遐迩的世界旅游胜地。
西安又是中国西部航空、铁路和公路交通运输的枢纽,有100多条国际、国内航线和连接东西南北的“十”字大通道。即将建成的八条“米”字型高速公路将使西安成为中国陆地交通最便捷的城市。
过去几十年中,西安已经形成了以大中型企业为骨干,制造业为主体的综合性的工业体系,是中国航空航天、电力设备、电子、仪表、机械制造、纺织、国防等工业的重要基地。近几年来,西安吸引了国内外大批投资者。目前,已有来自世界54个国家和地区的2000多家外资企业落户西安,其中不少属世界500强企业。投资总额超过67. 9亿美元。
西安还是中国最重要的高等教育和科研基地之一。目前,西安有各类高等院校39所,私立大学十几所,技术研究和开发机构4000多家,各类专业技术人员380000多名。他们在各个领域取得了重大的科研成果,有些已经达到国内国际先进水平。集中了2500多家技术产业的国家级西安高新技术产业开发区正在成为推动西安高科技发展和经济增长的强大动力。
目前,我国正在实施西部大开发的伟大战略。西安作为西北地区最大的现代化城市将在西部大开发中发挥其重要的先锋作用。同时,西部大开发也为更多外商来西安投资,寻求发展提供了无限的商机。         
    女士们,先生们,说话间已经到了你们下榻的宾馆。祝各位在西安过得愉快!
G: Thank you very much for your wonderful introduction. See you later.

2007-12-08 17:02:51 来自青青岛社区
回复:【┳⑦号小妖┳】

第四篇 Passage 4

相关词语 Related Words and Expressions
清真寺                mosque  
避暑胜地              summer resort
陪葬墓                satellite tombs
饺子宴                diner of dumplings
地方风味              local flavor food / food of local flavor
灯展                  lantern show
西安市工艺美术厂      Xi’an Art and Handicraft Factory               

译:   团长先生,我们现在来谈谈你们在西安的活动安排怎么样?我先谈个初步日程,如果
你们有什么不同意见或建议,请不要客气。
G:   That will be fine, please go ahead.
译:  今天是星期一,你们将于星期五下午飞往上海,对吗?
G:   Yes, We’ll fly to Shanghai by the East Airline at 4:15 Friday afternoon.
译:   这几天是这样安排的,如果你们不累的话,我们今天下午就去参观钟鼓楼、清真寺、
和大雁塔,这些都是具有不同风格的中国古代建筑。
G:   We are not tired at all. We want to see Xi’an as much as possible.
译:   我们尽量安排。今晚6: 30,我们市长在西安宾馆宴会厅举行欢迎宴会,请各位光临。
G:   That’s very kind of you.
译:  星期二我们去临潼,上午参观“世界第八奇观”秦始皇兵马俑,中午在那里吃午饭,
下午参观华清池――过去帝王避暑的胜地。在回旅馆的途中,我们参观半坡博物馆,看看
6000年前中国人是如何劳动生息的。晚上,我们去西安市人民剧院看一场仿唐乐舞。
G:   That’s wonderful.
译:   星期三我们去乾陵,那里有唐代第三个皇帝――李治和皇后武则天――中国历史上唯
一的女皇的合葬墓及他们亲属的墓群,离西安约80公里。我们中午在那里用餐,下午
去昭陵。昭陵是唐代第二个皇帝――李世民的墓及无数的陪葬墓。这一天比较紧张,所以晚
上没有安排,大家可以自由活动。现在正值双节期间(国庆和中秋),晚上城墙上有大型灯
展和其它文化娱乐活动,大家可以前去观看灯展。
星期四上午我们参观陕西历史博物馆。这是中国四大博物馆之一,收藏了从史前到宋代大量珍贵的历史文物。下午我们参观西安碑林博物馆――一座中国古代文化艺术的宝库。
之后,我们可以参观西安市工艺美术厂或在街上购物。晚上,友协会长请大家在西安饺子馆
吃一顿西安特有的地方风味饭――饺子宴。 星期五上午,我们去参观西北大学。这是一所
西北地区最古老的综合性大学。因为团里很多人来自学校,希望参观一所大学,能与师生交
谈。下午你们就飞往上海了。这个安排怎么样?
G:   Excellent. It’s very thoughtful of you to have drawn up such a deliberate program for our delegation. I agree to your arrangement. One thing I want to add. We’d like very much to see a village if possible. We’ve heard so much about the economic reform and changes taking place in the rural areas. We want to see how farmers in China work and live today. One more thing is that we hope you will let us play the host on Thursday evening, instead of your giving us another dinner.  
译:  参观农村的事,我们可以安排。这样吧,星期二上午参观完秦始皇兵马俑后,中午我们就去那里附近的一个村子。你们可以到农民家里做客,同他们交谈,看看中国西部地区农民的生活情况。贵国总统克林顿就曾访问过西安附近的农家。
G:  So, everything is settled. I must say the Chinese people are the most hospitable people in the world; I only wish members of my delegation will not be spoiled―will not abuse your hospitality!
译:  我们访问堪萨斯市时,也受到美国人民的热情接待。我们两国人民一直是彼此友好相待的。

III.参考译文    Reference Version

第一篇  Passage 1

(一个中国贸易代表团到达伦敦盖特威克机场。)
飞行员:我是机长,我姓宋。飞机就要在伦敦的盖特威克机场降落了。飞机着陆以后,请继续在原座位上坐好。等飞机完全停稳,
信号灯全部熄灭以后再起身。离开飞机时,请带好您的全部手提行李。凡持有非欧盟国家护
照的旅客,要填写入境卡和健康情况申报表,并把这些和护照一起放在手边。
今天伦敦天气晴朗,气温在华氏65度左右,有微风。盖特威克机场位于首都的郊区,有专线火车直达维多利亚车站,每15分钟一趟,行驶半小时。
我代表全体机组人员感谢各位搭乘中国民航班机,并祝大家在英国过得愉快

(乘客们走下飞机,被带到护照检查处。)
Zhou:  There are three queues for passport control. Which one is ours?
机场人员:先生,您排左边这一个。您看,那儿写着:“非欧盟成员国护照”。
Zh: Good,the queue is not too long and it's moving quite fast. We should be through in no
time. Well, that didn’t take long. What’s next? Where shall we find our luggage?
机: 您只要在这等一下,看着这些屏幕, 您的航班号一会儿就出来, 它就会告诉您应该到第
几号行李厅去。然后,沿着指示牌所指的方向上楼到行李厅去,那儿有的是行李手推车。
Zh: Look, there’s our number now, No. 3;we go up the right-hand staircase.

  (他们站在行李传送带旁,看着行李出来。过了一会儿,行李终于出现了。他们各自提走了自己的行李。)
机: 先生,您有什么要申报的吗?
Zh: No, thank you.
机: 那么,请您走绿色通道,门上写着:“无可申报”。

(代表团办完了海关手续走进接机厅,和前来迎接他们的人见面。)
戈: 李夫人,你好!又见到你了,真高兴。你还记得我吗?我是国际贸易公司的克里斯托
弗&#8226;戈登。几年以前,咱们见过面。
Li: Yes, of course I remember you, Mr. Gordon. Delighted to meet you again, and this must be
Miss Davis from the Sino-British Trade Council
戴: 是的,我是菲力帕&#8226;戴维斯。见到你很高兴。旅途愉快吗?不太累吧?
Li:  No,the journey wasn’t too bad at all. I did get some sleep, so I’m not feeling too tired.
Allow me to introduce my colleagues. Madam Wan from Machimpex, Mr. Guan from Chinatuhsu,
and Mr. Zhou from Ceroilfood.
戴: 你们好!要是大家都准备好了,咱们就上火车吧?我已经买了车票,我们可以把行
李车一直推到站台上去。

   (在火车里)
戴: 这段路用不了多少时间,大约只要半小时。这趟列车中途不停,直达维多利亚车站。咱们要穿过景色秀丽的乡村。越过泰晤士河的时候,大家沿着河往右手看,可以清楚地看到西敏寺、议会大厦和大本钟。
Li:  I’ve never been on a train in England before, so it’s a new experience for me.
戈:  至少今天的天气很好。初到一个国家,要是赶上下雨,那可就糟了,恐怕大多数访问英国的人都遇上过,尤其是在秋天。
Li:  Do you get a lot of rain in London?
戈:  是的,特别是秋季。在伦敦一年有160多天都是雨天。这就是为什么你发现人们出门
时总要带把伞。
Li:  That’s very interesting. I’ve heard that the change of the seasons is very picturesque here. I
hope we’ll have a chance to see some of the English countryside and coast.
戈:   你们肯定可以看到。其实,戴维斯小姐已经给你们安排好了。
Li: That sounds very nice. Thank you, Miss Davis.
(他们到达下榻的宾馆。)

第二篇  Passage 2

(代表团到达伦敦后,当天晚上戈登先生设宴招待李夫人和其他成员。他们来到一家俯视着泰晤士河的法国餐馆。在这里,他们见到了戈登先生的夫人和他的几位同事。以下是他们席间的谈话。)
戈:  诸位请坐。
Li:  Thank you. The view is superb. What’s the bridge over there that’s all lit up?
戈:  那是奥博特桥,是以维多利亚女王的丈夫奥博特亲王的名字命名的。过去,驳船经常
逆流而上,给伦敦运送物资。目前还有一些驳船,不过现在,泰晤士河主要是供大家观赏了。
戈夫人:你可以乘船从格林威治直达西边的汉普顿宫,途中要穿过塔桥和伦敦商业区,路过
议会大厦。
Li:  That would be fascinating. Perhaps we’ll have time for that while we’re here.
戈:  李夫人,请你看看菜谱。我的夫人已经选好了菜。每逢有什么特别的事情,我们都到
这家餐馆来,所以这里的菜我们大部分都尝过,朱莉亚点的菜,我可以向大家大力推荐。
夫人: 谢谢你,亲爱的。我想,咱们先吃熏鲑鱼,然后来个桔汁炖鸭――这是法国人烹
饪鸭子的传统做法。
Li: That sounds delicious! How thoughtfully chosen! As I’m sure you know, in China we eat                  
a lot of fish and of course we come from Beijing and duck is one of our most famous dishes. I am                     
interested to try it served in a totally new way.
夫人:        夫人:我希望您爱吃,换换口味总是叫人开心。啊!鲑鱼来了,请用黑面包就着吃,我建议大家挤点柠檬汁,味道就都出来了。
戈: 诸位都喜欢喝白葡萄酒吗?这种酒没什么甜味。我看既然吃鱼和鸭,咱们就喝白葡
萄酒吧。不知道你们是不是想喝红葡萄酒,或者别的什么?
Li:  No, white is fine for me, certainly, thank you.
戈:  请随便用吧,不必拘束,就像在家里一样。
Li:  Do you enjoy cooking, Mrs. Gordon?
夫人: 是的,我喜欢,虽然我经常得争着下厨房,因为克里斯是把好手。现在,孩子们都                       
上学去了,家里就剩下我们俩,我们也就不怎么做饭了。可是,的确在办公室里工作一天之                    
后,我很乐意下厨房,换换脑筋。好在我们家做什么吃的都有人喜欢。
戈:  是的。喜欢的不仅是我。有一天,朱莉亚从烤箱里拿出一只做好的鸡,放在厨房的桌
子上 凉着,她到车站去接我。等我们回来的时候,只见小猫和小狗在桌子底下呼呼大睡。
在它们之间有一堆鸡骨头。
Li:  Oh! What a feast they must have had! On the subject of “cats”, isn’t there a famous play
on in London about cats?
夫人: 是的,剧名就叫《猫》,是个音乐剧。是根据英国最著名的诗人T.S伊里亚特的一本
诗集改编的。这个剧已经演了好几年了,非常叫座,得提前六个月,甚至一年订票。
Li:  Good heavens!
夫人: 李夫人,你喜欢看戏吗?喜欢听歌剧还是看芭蕾舞?趁你们在伦敦的时候,哪天
晚上,咱们到科文特加登剧院去看戏,怎么样?
Li: Oh, we’d love to,Covent Garden is so famous. Many people in China have heard of it
because of My Fair Lady.
夫人: 你在中国看过《卖花女》吗?我非常喜欢这部电影,它让人百看不厌。你们在伦敦
的这段时间,考文特加登戏院里既演芭蕾舞,又演歌剧。芭蕾舞演的是《天鹅湖》。克里斯,
现在上演的是哪部歌剧?
戈:  我想,是普契尼的《蝴蝶夫人》。李夫人,你喜欢看什么,芭蕾舞还是歌剧?
Li:  I like both, but I’ve always wanted to see Swan Lake.
夫人: 那么,就这么定了。我们想办法去买票,也许能订到包厢,要看像《天鹅湖》这样
的古典芭蕾舞剧,就得到拷文特加登戏院去看。

第三篇        Passage 3

    (At the airport, the president and the interpreter of the CPAFFC Xi’an Sub-association are waiting to meet an US-China friendship delegation from Kansas City.)
Interpreter: Excuse me;I guess you are the U.S.-China Friendship Delegation from Kansas City.
客: 是的,我们是从堪萨斯市来的。
I: How do you do? You are welcome to Xi’an. I’m the interpreter from the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, Xi’an Sub-association. My name is Li Ming. This is the president of Xi’an Sub- association, Mr. Wang Hai.
President: How do you do? Welcome our friends from Kansas City.
客: 你好。 我叫艾伦&#8226;西尔佛曼,是代表团的团长。感谢你们如此盛情,来机场迎接我
们。
P:  How happy we are to have friends coming from afar. Why shouldn’t I come and meet you
at the airport? How was your flight?
客:  旅途很好。飞机很舒适,飞行很愉快。这里天气很温和,和北京一样。我们在北京呆
了一个星期。
P: Yes , autumn is the best season here. It is always sunny and pleasant, the right season for
travel. Besides, you are lucky to be here during our National Day and the Mid-autumn Festival.
There is a festival atmosphere everywhere in China. Wish you a pleasant stay in Xi’an.
I: Excuse me;do you have to go through any formalities?
客: 我想没有什么手续要办。我们都拿到了自己的行李。一切都很顺利。
P: Now we can go back to the hotel. The bus is waiting for us outside.
客: 谢谢。
    (On the way to the hotel)
P: It is your first time to Xi’an, Mr. Silverman?
客: 是的,也是第一次来中国。我听说过很多关于你们国家,北京、长城、西安的事。我
们都渴望访问你们的国家,接触你们的人民。在北京,我们参观了故宫、颐和园、天坛、明
代的帝王陵,还有长城。北京真漂亮,长城太壮观了!世界上的八大奇观有两处都在中
国。在北京我们参观了一大奇观。我们渴望在西安参观世界第八奇观。
P: Sure, you will. You will see the 8th wonder of the world in Xi’an. Just as one of our foreign
friends said: You are not considered to have been to Egypt unless you have seen the Pyramid, and
neither you are to China unless you have seen the Qin Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses in Xi’an.
客: 是的,这就是我们为什么来西安。
P:  It’s about 40 minutes drive from the airport to the hotel. I’d like to take this opportunity to
give you a brief introduction to our city, Xi’an.
客: 那太好了!
P: Xi’an is situated in the center of Guanzhong Plain with the Weihe River in the north and
Qinling Mountains in the south. With a history of more than 3100 years, Xi’an is the most
important of the six ancient capitals in China. Xi’an was called Chang’an, meaning eternal peace in
ancient times. Starting from the 11th century B.C., 13 dynasties including the Zhou, Qin, West Han,
Sui and Tang established their capitals in or near Xi’an,making it the earliest ancient capital which
lasted the longest in Chinese history.
Since West Han Dynasty, Xi’an has had friendly relations with many countries in the world.
The famous Silk Road started from Xi’an, and made Chang’an the Oriental cultural center. Particularly, during the Tang Dynasty Chang’an became one of the largest and most prosperous metropolises in the world. Chang’an, the capital of Tang Dynasty, had a population of more than  one million. Through the Silk Road, Chang’an had frequent trade and cultural exchange with many countries in South Asia, Central Asia, Europe, and even Africa.
Five thousand years of civilization has left Xi’an numerous historical sites and a wealth of
cultural relics. There is the Banpo Museum------the ruins of a primitive village and the Neolithic culture some 6000 years ago; the famous ancient architecture------the Big and the Small Wild Goose Pagoda of the Tang Dynasty, the Bell Tower, the Drum Tower and the City Wall of the Ming Dynasty; the ancient cultural treasure house------Xi’an Forest of Steles; Shaanxi History Museum------ one of the nation’s four most important museums; the Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor-------the ancestor of the Chinese nation, and Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses known as the 8th wonder of the world. In addition, the hot spring at the foot of Lishan Mountains, the mausoleums of the emperors of the Qin, Han and Tang dynasties near Xi’an, and the numerous religious monasteries and natural beauty spots in and near Xi’an have all drawn visitors from all over the country as well as the world, making Xi’an an international tourist attraction.
Today, Xi’an is the capital of Shaanxi province. It covers an area of more than 9,900 square
kilometers and has a population of 6.75 million people. Being located geographically in the center of China, Xi’an is now an important center of science, technology, education, finance, and manufacturing industry and the largest commercial and material distribution center in mid-west China. It is also a tourist destination of world fame.
Xi’an is the airline, railway and highway communication hub in west China. The city has more than 100 international and domestic airlines, and a railway network connecting the east and the west, the north and the south. With a network of eight highways to be completed soon, Xi’an will be a city with the speediest and most convenient land transportation in China.
In the past decades, the city has established a comprehensive industrial system with large and medium-sized enterprises as the backbone and the manufacturing industry as its mainstay. The city is now China’s important base of aviation and astronautics, power equipment, electronics, instruments and meters, machinery manufacture, textile and national-defense industry. In recent years, Xi’an has attracted large numbers of investors from home and abroad. Up till now, the city has registered more than 2000 foreign-funded enterprises from 54 countries and regions in the world; many of them belong to the world’s 500 strongest multinational corporations. Their total investment amounts to US$ 6.79 billion.  
Xi’an is also one of the most important bases for scientific research and higher education in China. The city boasts 39 institutions of higher learning, a dozen non-government-run universities and colleges, more than 4000 technological research and development institutes with more than 380, 000 professional and technical personnel working in different fields, who have accomplished great scientific achievements in many areas, some of which are of international and national advanced level. The State-level Xi’an High-tech Industrial Development Zone, the home of more than 2500 technology enterprises, is becoming a powerful engine for the city’s high-tech development and economic growth.
At present China is implementing its great strategy of developing the west. As the largest modern city in northwest China, Xi’an will play a pioneer role in the great development of the west. Meanwhile, the campaign of developing the west will provide great opportunities for more foreign businessmen to invest and seek to develop in Xi’an.
Ladies and gentlemen, here are we at the hotel. Wish you a wonderful time in Xi’an!
客: 感谢你的精彩介绍,再见。

第四篇        Passage 4

Discussing the Schedule in Xi’an
Host: Mr. Silverman, shall we start discussing your program in Xi’an? I’ve worked out a suggested schedule. If you have any objection or suggestion, please let us know.  
客: 很好,请讲吧。
H: Today’s Monday and you’ll fly to Shanghai on Friday afternoon, is that right?  
客: 是的。我们将于星期五下午4U15乘东方航空公司的航班飞往上海。
主: Here is the suggested program: If you are not tired, we’ll take you to the Bell Tower, the Drum Tower, the Great Mosque and the Big Wild Goose Pagoda, all this ancient Chinese architecture of different styles.
客: 我们一点也不累,我们在西安想尽可能多地看些地方。
H: We’ll try our best to arrange. At 6:30 this evening, our mayor will host a dinner party to welcome you in the dining hall of Xi’an Hotel. So you are welcome to the party.
客:  非常感谢。我们一定去。
H:  Tuesday morning you’ll visit the “Eighth Wonder of the World”, Emperor Qin’s Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses. You’ll have lunch there. On the way back to the hotel in the afternoon, you’ll visit Banpo Museum, where you’ll see how the Chinese people lived and labored some 6000 years ago. You’ll watch an evening performance of Music and Dance in the Tang-dynasty Style at Xi’an Opera House this evening.
客: 那真是太好了。
H: Wednesday morning, you’ll visit the Tang tombs in Qianxian County, 80 kilometers away from Xi’an. There is the joint tomb of the third emperor of Tang Dynasty, Li Zhi and his consort, Wu Zetian, the only empress in Chinese history, and the tombs of their relatives. You’ll have lunch there. In the afternoon you’ll visit Zhaoling tombs, the tomb of the second emperor of Tang Dynasty, Li Shimen and numerous satellite tombs. It will be a tiring day. So there is no arrangement in the evening. However, during the National Day and the Mid-autumn Festival, there are some cultural entertainments such as lantern show on the city wall. If you are interested in them, you can go and watch the lantern show.
Thursday morning, you’ll visit Shaanxi History Museum, one of the four most important museums in China. There you’ll see numerous valuable cultural relics from pre-history period to the Song Dynasty (1127A.D.). In the afternoon, you’ll visit the Xi’an Forest of Steles, the cultural treasure house of ancient China. After that, we’ll take you to Xi’an Art and Handicraft Factory and do shopping in the stores. In the evening, the president of the Xi’an Friendship Association will invite you to a dinner of dumplings; it’s a dinner of Xi’an local flavor.
Friday morning we’ll take you to Northwest University, the oldest comprehensive university in northwest China. We arrange this for you because many of our friends come from schools and wish to visit a university in Xi’an and talk with the students there. You’ll fly to Shanghai Friday afternoon. Well, what do you think of this arrangement?
客: 很好。你们想得真周到,为我们代表团拟定了这样细致的日程。我同意你们的安排。但有一点补充:如果可能的话,我们很想参观一个村子。因为我们听到了很多有关中国农村的经济改革和变化情况,很想亲眼看一看今日中国的农民是如何劳动生活的。还有一件事,就是我们希望会长能让我们在星期四晚上请客,而不是由你们再设宴招待我们。
H: We can arrange you a visit to a village. Tuesday morning, after the visit of the Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses, we’ll take you to a village nearby. You can visit the farmer’s homes and talk with them, so that you will have some idea of the farmers’ life in west China today. You know, your former president Mr. Clinton visited a village there.
客:太好了,一切都定下来了。我要说中国人民是世界上最热情好客的人民。我只希望本代表团的成员们不会被宠坏了。不要滥用你们的热情好客。
H: We were warmly received by the American people when we visited Kansas City. The people of our two countries have always been friendly to each other.

2007-12-08 17:03:25 来自青青岛社区
回复:

第五单元      Unit 5
礼仪讲话      Ceremonial Speech


I. 阅读材料 Reading Material

第一篇        Passage 1

Remarks By U.S. Commerce Secretary Don Evans
      
Chris: Tomorrow is another day. And we hope you enjoy your visit here despite the rain. Now I would like to invite the Ambassador of the United States to China, Clark Randt to come to the podium to introduce our speaker. Mr. Ambassador. (Applause)
Mr. Randt:  Thank you, Chris. Mr. Secretary, Minister Zhang, Vice-Mayor Liu, Distinguished Guests & Visitors,
Thanks to the American Chamber of Commerce in Beijing and U. S. Business Council for organizing today’s luncheon. In these trying times, America has been truly blessed by great leadership in Washington, men and women of extraordinary conviction and faith, including notably Secretary Evans. He is the key advisor to the President on commercial and trade matters, that it is itself a huge and vitally important portfolio. However, the secretary is a man of incredible energy. He also has the bureau of senses, the U. S. Patent & Trademark Office, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration which includes the Weather Bureau. Moreover, he is also a key member of the President’s economic policy team and the President’s special test expert on energy.
Secretary Evans will address us today about the state of U.S.-China Trade relations, opportunities and challenges created by China’s accession to the WTO. Ladies and gentlemen, without further ado, the main event, I’m honored to be able to introduce to you Secretary of Commerce, United States of America, Don Evans.

Mr. Secretary’s Address:
Thank you so much, Sandie. You draw quite a crowd, buddy. I’m delighted to be here. I have been in China for just a few short days. It’s maybe 48 hours and I know it’s one o’clock in the morning back home I know that. But it feels good to me. This is my first trip to China and after just a couple of days here, I can feel the energy, I can feel the excitement and see & feel the opportunity. I know when I return home I’m going to encourage many of my colleagues to make a trip over here.
It has been twenty-six years in my life in the private sector. It’s a lot of differences in the public sector I can tell you that. But one thing that I have learned in the last fifteen months, is that the core of belief that I have and the core of belief that the President of United States has is all governments can do is to help create the right conditions and environment for economies to grow. Governments don’t create wealth; governments don’t create prosperity. You do that, the entrepreneurs of the economy, the leaders of the economy, the workers of the economy. You are the ones that create the wealth and create the prosperity.
When you think about the dynamic economy here in China, and where it’s heading and I think back about what America has accomplished in the last 200 years. I really do think about those in the private sector who have been responsible for implementing a free market system, a free enterprise system. I think about the important responsibilities that you have of creating the conditions within your own companies for your colleagues, and your fellow workers to achieve their dreams. So when you think about what you are doing, you ought to be thinking about the fact that you too are public servants. You too are all a part of creating the environment. So those people that live all across this country, all across this world can achieve their dreams. So think about yourselves as stewards and think about yourselves as being responsible for people all around the world achieving their dreams.
This trip is about leading a business development mission to Beijing and then we are going to be on to Shanghai. And this trip is also about sharing a dream, not the American dream, but the dream of all mankind…to have a world that lives in peace and prosperity. Six billion people live on the planet. And three billion of them live on less than two dollars a day. That’s not right and that’s not good. Our responsibility is to do something about it. What’s our purpose here in life? Our purpose of highest calling is to serve other people and make their lives better. And how can we do that? I can tell you in one word how we can do that. Trade. Expand trade all around this world, the free market economy. For you see what trade does, what competitive free markets do, it creates the conditions for economies to grow. Competition leads to innovation, innovation leads to higher productivity and higher productivity leads to economic growth which leads to a higher standard of living, which leads people demanding the kind of freedoms that all humans should be entitled to, leading to a higher quality of life and a world that lives in peace and prosperity.
Today China is clearly one of our most important trading partners. In the last ten years, trade in China has grown from $25 billion ten years ago to $120 billion last year, a five times’ increase in the last ten years. We have more foreign Commercial Service personnel in China than in any other country in the world. One hundred…including many Chinese… we have 50 right here in Beijing. And the latest signs of the significance of our relationship and the importance of this country to our future trade are the trade missions. I’ve brought along with me 15 of America’s finest companies, leaders from 15 of America’s finest companies. Will they please stand? As a matter of fact, I’d like to recognize them. I see some of them together to my right and off to the left (Applause). Thank you very much. They are the lucky ones. 85 other companies applied, so there are many that are eager to come to this country and they will be coming. This group represents a broad spectrum of industries. They have considerable global experience, including right here in China. And they all represent the best of the American entrepreneurial spirit. Tony Beyer (the CEO at Tek Pak which makes special packaging materials for high-tech components) is here somewhere, I had a chance to go to Tony’s plant a couple of weeks ago in Chicago, Illinois. It was a real thrill to walk through that plant and see 55 employees working on highly technical kind of products and thinking they are exporting to 27 countries around the world――55 employees working in a firm in Chicago exporting to 27 countries around the world! But in China we know there is a big gap between experts from China to the United States and from the United States to China. In fact the trade deficit last year was about $83 billion, however the U.S. exports to China have been growing dramatically in the last couple of years. In fact exports to China have been growing at three times a rate as exports from China to the United States. Many sectors are opening up. The companies with us this week are in sectors with great potential in China―information technology, telecommunication, engineering, construction, medical technology, energy, covering many sectors that are growing here in this great country.
2001 was a banner year for China. China chaired the APEC meetings. It joined the World Trade Organization (WTO). And it was selected to host the 2008 Summer Olympics. Congratulations to them. As the country that just finished hosting the 2002 Winter Olympics, of course we wish them the very best. To stage this world’s largest and most spectacular event, China government plans to spend some $23 billion on operations and infrastructure development. That means new business opportunities for American companies. For example, there will be an Olympic optical Internet that will provide broadband, multimedia teleconferencing and other services in all Olympic locations. You know, American companies excel in telecommunication and information technology, so I hope that China will take advantage of this. But trade, whether it’s a part of the upcoming Olympics or whether it’s a part of this growing economy here in China, it would have been a lot tougher had China not joined the WTO.
We are glad to have China as the full partner in the WTO. It’s significant. 144 WTO members account for 95 percent of global trade and China is the 7th largest trading partner in the world. And they ought to be a part of the WTO organization and play by the same rules as all the other large trading countries do. Some say that China could be the 4th largest trading partner within the decade. The way the economy is growing, who knows? They may even be higher. New foreign capital is continuing to come into China in the year 2000, $40 billion of foreign direct investment coming into China. To make a comparison, Japan is 2/3 of the Asian economy, but its foreign direct investment in the year 2000 was only $8 billion.
Macroeconomics is very important but also microeconomics. A transparent tax system, a transparent and effective judicial system, honoring the sanctity of contracts, nondiscriminatory regulations, nondiscriminatory standards, nondiscriminatory customs laws are all part of making sure a free market economy works. WTO requires legal consistency and fairness and this will help, this will help develop the rule of law in China and it will help give investors the confidence and the certainty they need to help and keep investing in China.

课文词语 Words and Expressions from the Text
podium                   讲台
luncheon                  午餐会
trying                     艰难的
conviction                 坚定的信仰
vitally                    必不可少的
portfolio                  部长职位;重要职位
bureau                  (政府机构等的)局、司、处、署
without further ado         不再罗嗦地
dynamic                  有活力的
steward                   服务员,管理员
entrepreneurial             企业家的
a top priority               应予以优先考虑的事情
calling                    职业,(做某事的)强烈冲动
spectrum                  范围
deficit                    赤字
banner                    特别好的; 标志性的
spectacular                 引人注目的
infrastructure               基础设施
optical                    光学的;光的
broadband                 宽频带
excel                     胜过
macroeconomics            宏观经济学
microeconomics            微观经济学
transparent                透明的
judicial                   司法的
sanctity                   神圣
nondiscriminatory          非歧视的
               
第二篇 Passage 2

Here is the World Organization Created to Serve All People

Ladies and gentlemen, dear friends,
Today, the peoples of the United Nations mark the 50th anniversary of the only truly universal organization in humanity’s history. 50 years is a tiny drop in the stream of the centuries. But no other institution in history has gathered together so many political communities, no other has survived so many storms, no other has built such a promising foundation for the future, as has the United Nations.
In the United Nations was born the concept of peacekeeping, a permanent contribution to the all and to the age-old search for peaceful solutions. In the United Nations was heard proudly and clearly the voices of the poorest of the poor. Here the difficult issues of development have received the most productive attention. In the United Nations, the new nations of the world came to take their rightful place as member states. Here sovereignty and statute come together as the foundation stones of an emerging international community.
The peoples of the United Nations stand at the turning point in world affairs. On this anniversary, we commemorate and assess realistically a half-century of the United Nations’ existence. And on this day, we are duty-bound to deliberate on the cause to be taken by the world organization in its second half-century. Peace is an immediate concern, but the cause of development is essential to enduring success. It calls us to look beyond peace to organize and take action in the fields of economy, environment, social justice and democratization.
Let us learn from our setbacks. More importantly, let us build upon our successes, for there have been many successes in situation too complex or undramatic to gain wide attention, successes in slow and diligent effort to achieve progress visible only of the long term, and successes in major operations for peace, development and democracy which have not been given the recognition they merit.
We are gaining momentum. The United Nations provides the focus for the common global issues. Here is the machinery we can transform into a responsive instrument essential to the realization of humanity’s finest hopes.

课文词语  Words and Expressions from the Text
universal organization            全球性组织
the stream of the centuries         世纪的长河
age-old                        长期的
member states                   成员国
take one’s rightful place           取得合法席位
duty-bound                     肩负重任的
foundation stones                基石
commemorate and assess          纪念并评价
build upon                      依靠,以……为基础
learn from setbacks               前事不忘,后事之师
merit                          应该得到
momentum                     动力
responsive                      灵敏的


II. 口译实践 Interpretation Practice
听译下列课文 Listen to the Following Passage and Interpret Them:

第一篇(英译汉) Passage I (E―C)

相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
pay tribute to                     称赞,赞颂
gracious and eloquent remarks       热情而雄辩的讲话
toast                            祝酒;祝酒词
common ground                  共同点;共同之处
at the outset                      开始;开端
at times                         有时;间或
transcend                        超过;超越
make compromise                 妥协;做出让步
close the gulf between…            弥合……之间的鸿沟
in lockstep                       紧密步伐;步伐完全一致
outside interference or domination    外来的干涉或统治
legacy                           遗产;遗赠物
plague                           使人痛苦,难受
cry out to be done                  需要去做
be destined to                     注定的,预定的
raise glasses to                    为……而干杯

Mr. Prime Minister and all of your distinguished guests this evening,
On behalf of all of your American guests, I wish to thank you for the incomparable hospitality for which the Chinese people are justly famous throughout the world. I particularly want to pay tribute, not only to those who prepared the magnificent dinner, but also to those who have provided the splendid music. Never have I heard American music played better in a foreign land.
Mr. Prime Minister, I wish to thank you for your very gracious and eloquent remarks. At this very moment through the wonder of telecommunications, more people are seeing and hearing what we say than on any other such occasion in the whole history of the world. Yet, what we say here will not be long remembered. What we do here can change the world.
    As you said in your toast, the Chinese people are a great people; the American people are a great people. If our two people are enemies the future of this world we share together is dark indeed. But if we can find common ground to work together, the chance for world peace is immeasurably increased.
In the spirit of frankness which I hope will characterized our talks this week, let us recognize at the outset these points: we have at times in the past been enemies. We have great differences today. What brings us together is that we have common interests, which transcend those differences. As we discuss our differences, neither of us will compromise our principles. But while we cannot close the gulf between us, we can try to bridge it so that we may be able to talk across it.
    So, let us, in these next five days, start a long march together, not in lockstep, but on different roads leading to the same goal, the goal of building a world structure of peace and justice in which all may stand together with equal dignity and in which each nation, large or small, has a right to determine its own form of government, free of outside interference or domination. The world watches. The world listens. The world waits to see what we will do. What is the world? In a personal sense, I think of my eldest daughter whose birthday is today. As I think of her, I think of all the children in the world, in Asia, in Africa, in Europe, in the Americas, most of whom were born since the date of the foundation of the People’s Republic of China.
    What legacy shall we leave our children? Are they destined to die for the hatreds which have plagued the old world, or are they destined to live because we had the vision to build a new world?
    There is no reason for us to be enemies. Neither of us seeks the territory of the other; neither of us seeks domination over the other, neither of us seeks to stretch out our hands and rule the world.
    Chairman Mao has written, “So many deeds cry out to be done, and always urgently; the world rolls on, time presses. Ten thousand years are too long, seize the day, seize the hour!”
     This is the hour. This is the day for our two peoples to rise to the heights of greatness, which can build a new and a better world.
    In that spirit, I ask all of you present to join me in raising your glasses to Chairman Mao, to Prime Minister Zhou, and to the friendship of the Chinese and American people, which can lead to friendship and peace for all people in the world.

第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E―C)

相关词语 Related Words and Expressions
vice-chancellor                       副校长
present one’s heartfelt congratulations to  向……表示衷心的祝贺
intellectual community                 知识界
storehouse of knowledge               知识宝库
inheritance specific to…                对……特有的遗产
personal and civic conduct              个人行为和社会行为
underwrite                           赞同;同意
free fearless enquiry                   自由无畏的探究
a beacon of light                      一座灯塔
fashion its tradition                    形成自己的传统
elaborate and consolidate               发挥和巩固
a keystone                           拱顶石;基础

Ladies and gentlemen,
Dear colleagues:
Because I am the Vice-Chancellor of the oldest of the foreign universities represented here today, I have been chosen to speak on their behalf. I am pleased to be their voice in presenting our heartfelt congratulations to the professors, teachers, researchers and students of Peking University on the 100th anniversary of its foundation.
Our universities form a great intellectual community round the world. Science has no nationality; knowledge belongs to everyone.
Our universities create new knowledge. They teach this knowledge, together with that of other universities and also the best of the great storehouse of knowledge, which those who came before us have uncovered, tested and accumulated.
All universities contribute to the prosperity and success of their country. They also conserve the culture and inheritance specific to their country’s civilization. But, they do more. Knowledge is secure only when it is hard won by the independent tests of accuracy, rational explanation and truth. So, when we teach our students skills, we also give them values. On the one side, these are values for personal and civic conduct. On the other side, these values underwrite the personal need for independent understanding, which is the source of human creativity.
These duties give universities a high responsibility. They are rooted in a great and fine tradition of honesty, free fearless enquiry and independence. Each university is a beacon of light in its own society and, by its association with its sisters; its knowledge and its values are spread wide.
A tradition is not built easily or quickly. During one hundred years, Peking University has been fashioning its tradition. Present and future members of the University! We hope to see you elaborate and consolidate your tradition. We hope to see you become a keystone of the intellectual community. In your next century, we hope to see you contribute to the international academic movement as a whole, as more and more of your numbers come to participate in the activities of your sister universities.
Congratulations, Peking University on your first century of achievement!

第三篇(汉译英) Passage 3 (C―E)

相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
向……转达诚挚的问候和良好的祝愿    convey to…the cordial greetings and best wishes
扩大共识                            broaden common ground
重大问题                            major issues
有识之士                            persons of insight
战略眼光                            a strategic perspective
恪守                                abide by
联合公报                            joint communiqué
携起手来                            join hands together

总统先生,
克林顿夫人,
女士们,先生们:
我感谢克林顿总统的邀请,怀着愉快的心情对美国进行国事访问。我要借此机会,向伟大的美国人民转达十二亿中国人民的诚挚问候和良好祝愿。
十八年前,邓小平先生在这里郑重宣告:中美关系史上的一个新时代开始了。今天,我受中国人民的重托访问贵国,是为了增进了解,扩大共识,发展合作,共创未来,推动中美关系进入新的发展阶段。
二十一世纪即将来临,世界各国人民都期待着新世纪成为一个充满希望的世纪,我们这个星球成为人类和平、安宁、繁荣的家园。
中美两国都是世界上具有重要影响的国家。在新的国际形势下,中美之间的共同利益,不是在减少,而是在增加;合作潜力,不是在缩小,而是在扩大。在事关全人类生存与发展的重大问题上,两国有着广泛的共同利益,肩负着共同的责任。世界各国人民和有识之士,都在关注着中美关系发展的进程。
我们要站在历史的高度,用战略的眼光,审视和处理两国关系。在过去的四分之一世纪里,中美双方制定的三个联合公报,使我们得以扩大众多领域的交流与合作,妥善地处理两国之间的分歧。我相信,只要继续恪守三个联合公报确立的原则,中美关系就会稳定、健康地向前发展。
我希望,中美两国关系的发展,能够对世界上不同历史文化、不同社会制度、不同发展水平的国家相互尊重、和平共处、共同发展,起到积极的推动作用。
让我们两国人民携起手来,同世界各国人民一道,为开创一个和平、稳定和繁荣的新世纪而共同努力。请允许我再次衷心感谢总统先生对我们的热情欢迎。

2007-12-08 17:04:09 来自青青岛社区
回复:

第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4 (C―E)

相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
会议议题                    agenda items
部长级会议                  Ministerial Meeting
对……表示热情欢迎          extend warm welcome to…
缩影                        epitome
东方明珠                    Oriental Pearl
实现贸易投资自由化          achieve trade and investment liberalization
多边贸易体制                multilateral regime
前沿问题                    frontier issue
经济可持续增长              sustainable economic growth
三方合作                    tripartite cooperation
高峰会                      high level meeting
注入活力                    inject fresh vigor
结出丰硕成果                produce rich deliverables
配合;协作                  collaboration

各位同事,女士们,先生们:
   金秋10月,很高兴能与大家聚会上海,共同审议本届亚太经合组织(APEC)部长级会议的各项议题。我谨代表中国政府对各位部长的到来表示热烈的欢迎。
   正如你们所见到的,作为中国经济社会快速发展的一个缩影,上海这一充满生机与活力的城市经过开发与建设,现代化建设日新月异,古老的“东方明珠”在新世纪正绽放出璀璨的光芒。
   过去的10年,同样是亚太区域合作快速发展的10年,在此期间APEC取得了辉煌的成就。它制定了发达成员于2010年、发展中成员于2020年实现贸易投资自由化的茂物目标;创造了单边行动与集体行动相结合的合作方式;有力地推动了全球多边贸易体制的发展;开展了多种形式的经济技术合作活动。毋庸置疑,APEC已经成为亚太地区乃至世界上最重要的经济合作组织之一。它为亚太地区各成员领导人进行对话和交流提供了难得的场所,同时就全球和地区经济的前沿性问题进行讨论,在许多问题的政策框架制定上起到了引导方向的作用。因此,APEC对于保持亚太地区的和平与稳定,促进地区经济繁荣与发展,做出了积极的贡献。
    APEC的成功发展,源于各成员希望通过合作实现经济持续增长的普遍愿望,也源于我们根据亚太地区的特点,遵循自主自愿、协商一致、灵活渐进的“APEC合作方式”,更源于APEC本身能够顺应全球和地区经济的最新发展,始终站在时代的前沿,与时俱进。
   本次会议是APEC步入新世纪后的第一次部长级会议。我们面临着许多新的机遇与挑战。全球及亚太地区总体经济增长速度减缓,“9.11”恐怖主义袭击事件对经济的冲击已显现出来。如何促进增长,重振市场信心,是我们需要解决的头等大事。与此同时,经济全球化与新经济不断发展,为我们的地区和人民带来更多的利益与商机,但能否使各个群体都能获益,避免造成新的发展差距,也是我们必须面对的重要挑战。此外,多边贸易体制处在一个关键时刻,11月WTO多哈会议为世人所瞩目。APEC如何发挥它的独特作用,深化合作,保持地区经济的持续增长,这些都是我们需要加以探讨和解决的问题。
    为此,我们将今年APEC会议的主题确定为“新世纪、新挑战:参与、合作,促进共同繁荣。”在今后的两天内,我们将围绕这一主题,就以下几个方面的问题进行讨论。
   第一,推动贸易与投资。我们将在APEC范围内就如何为WTO第四届部长级会议做出贡献进一步交换意见,提出有关加强能力建设方面的具体建议;APEC为实现贸易投资自由化的目标而制定的单边行动计划、贸易便利化原则及其它新倡议将成为我们讨论的主要议题。
    第二,使亚太地区从全球化和新经济中受益。我们将在APEC人力资源能力建设高峰会所取得的成果基础上探讨如何加强政府、学术界和工商界的三方合作;APEC在开展经济技术合作过程中应建立更为有效的参与机制;我们将同时就如何在新经济时代实现“数字APEC蓝图”提出设想与实施方案。
    第三,促进亚太经济的可持续增长。我们希望通过我们的讨论,在应对目前宏观经济形势所面临的挑战方面扩大共识,采取切实的财政金融措施,稳定市场,恢复信心,促进增长,使APEC各成员的经济尽快走出经济放缓及“9.11事件”造成的阴影,重新走上持续稳定增长的道路。为此,我们将同财政部长们进一步合作,加强APEC成员间的宏观经济政策对话,并在金融领域的能力建设方面取得进展,为本地区经济的未来发展奠定坚实的基础。
    同时,我们要进一步联系更广泛的社会群体,扩大与各界的交流与合作,使工商界、青年、妇女等真正体会到APEC开展的经济合作活动给他们所带来的益处。
    各位同事,
    秋天是收获的季节。经过我们的官员们在过去数月的努力工作,今年APEC的各项工作已基本就绪,我相信此次部长级会议的讨论必然能够在以上各个领域结出丰硕的果实,提交给今年的领导人会议。我希望我们的努力不仅能取得切实的成果,而且为APEC第二个10年的发展注入新的活力并规划出其未来前进的蓝图。
    我期待着各位部长对中国作为会议主席的工作给予支持,在未来两天的会议里,充分发扬务实、灵活与合作的精神。我相信,在你们的积极配合下,本次会议一定能够取得成功。   
    谢谢大家。

III.  参考译文 Reference Version

第一篇        Passage 1

总理先生,今天晚上在座的诸位贵宾们:
    我谨代表你们的所有美国客人向你们表示感谢,感谢你们的无可比拟的盛情款待。中国人民以这种盛情款待而闻名世界。我们不仅要特别赞扬那些准备了这次盛大晚宴的人,而且还要赞扬那些为我们演奏美妙音乐的人。我在外国从来没有听到过演奏得这么好的美国音乐。
    总理先生,我要感谢你非常热情和雄辩的讲话。此时此刻,通过电讯的奇迹,看到和听到我们讲话的人比在整个世界历史上任何其他这样的场合都要多。但是,人们不会长久的记住我们在这里所讲的话,可我们在这里所作的事却能改变世界。
    正如你在祝酒时讲的那样,中国人民是伟大的人民,美国人民也是伟大的人民。如果我们两国人民互相为敌,那么我们共同居住的这个世界的前途就的确很暗淡。但是,如果我们能够找到进行合作的共同点,那么实现世界和平的机会就将无可估量地大大增加。
    我希望我们这个星期的会谈将是坦率的。本着这种坦率的精神,让我们在一开始就认识到这样几点:过去一些时候我们曾是敌人。今天我们仍有重大的分歧。使我们走到一起的,是我们有超越这些分歧的共同利益。在我们讨论我们的分歧时,我们哪一方都不会在自己的原则上妥协。但是,虽然我们不能弥合双方之间的鸿沟,我们却能够设法架起一座桥梁,以便我们能够越过它进行会谈。
    因此,让我们在今后的五天里一起开始一次长征吧,不是因循守旧,而是经由不同的道路向同一个目标前进。这个目标就是建立一个和平和正义的世界结构,在这个世界结构中,所有的人都可以在一起享有同等的尊严;每个国家,不论大小,都有权利决定它自己政府的形式,而不受外来的干涉或统治。全世界在注视着。全世界在倾听着。全世界在等待着看我们将做些什么。这个世界是怎样的呢?就我个人来讲,我想到我的大女儿,今天是她的生日。当我想到她的时候,我就想到全世界所有的儿童,亚洲,非洲,欧洲以及美洲的儿童,他们大多数都是在中华人民共和国成立以后出生的。
    我们将给我们的孩子们留下什么遗产呢?他们是要为那些使旧世界蒙受苦难的仇恨而死亡呢,还是由于我们有缔造一个新世界的远见而活下去呢?
    我们没有理由要成为敌人。我们哪一方都不企图取得对方的领土;我们哪一方都不企图统治对方。我们哪一方都不企图伸出手去统治世界。
    毛主席写过:“多少事,从来急;天地转,光阴迫。一万年太久,只争朝夕。”
    现在就是只争朝夕的时候了,是我们两国人民上升到缔造一个崭新的、更美好的世界的伟大境界的时候了。
本着这种精神,我请求诸位同我一起举杯,为毛主席,为周总理,为能够给全世界所有人民带来友谊与和平的中美两国人民之间的友谊,干杯。

第二篇        Passage 2

女士们,先生们,亲爱的同道们:
由于我是今天在此派有代表的各外国大学中最古老的大学的副校长,我被推选来代表他们讲话。我很高兴作为大家的代言人,表示我们衷心的祝贺,向北京大学的教授们、教师们、研究员们和学生们祝贺北大成立一百周年。
我们这些大学在全世界形成一个很大的知识界。科学没有国籍;知识属于每一个人。
    我们这些大学创造新的知识。他们教授这些新知识,也教授其他大学所创造的新知识,也教授我们先辈们所发现、试验和积累的伟大知识宝库中的最宝贵的知识。
    所有大学都对本国的繁荣和成功做出贡献。它们也保护本国文明所特有的文化和遗产。但是,它们做的比这还要多。只有经过准确、合理解释和对真理的独立试验而辛苦获得的知识,才是牢靠的知识。因此,当我们教学生技能时,我们也是在教会他们价值。一方面,这些是个人行为和社会行为的价值。另一方面,这些价值强调个人需要有独立的见解,因为独立的见解是人类创造力的源泉。
    这些职能赋予大学高度的责任。这些职责根植于诚实、自由无畏的探究和独立性这三者构成的伟大的优秀传统。每一所大学都是本国社会里的一座灯塔;通过它和姐妹大学的联系,它的知识和价值得以广为传播。
    一个传统不是容易树立的,不是很快就能树立的。一百年来,北京大学培养了自己的传统。北大今天和将来的成员们!我们希望看到你们发展和巩固你们的传统。我们希望看到你们成为知识界的一块拱顶石。在你们的第二个百年中,我们希望看到,随着你们越来越多的成员参与姐妹大学的活动,你们会对整个国际学术运动做出贡献。
    为北京大学第一个百年的成就,向北大表示祝贺!

第三篇        Passage 3

Mr. President and Mrs. Clinton,
Ladies and gentlemen,
Let me thank you, Mr. President, for your kind invitation. It is with great pleasure that I have come to the United States of America for a state visit. I wish to take this opportunity to convey to the great American people the cordial greetings and best wishes of the 1.2 billion Chinese people.
Eighteen years ago, Mr. Deng Xiaoping solemnly announced here that a new era for Sino-American relations had begun. Today, the Chinese people have sent me on this mission to the United States to enhance mutual understanding, broaden common ground, develop cooperation and build a future together and to bring our relationship to a new stage of development.
On the eve of the 21st century, people all over the world are looking forward to a new century full of hope and our planet blessed with peace, tranquility and prosperity for mankind.
Both China and the United States are countries that carry considerable weight in the world. In the new international situation, the shared interests between China and the United States have increased rather than decreased; our potential for cooperation has expanded rather than diminished. Our two countries share broad common interests and shoulder a common responsibility on major issues bearing upon human survival and development. All the people in the world and persons of insight are following closely the course of development of China-U.S. relations.
We should view and handle our relations from a historical height and in a strategic perspective. The past quarter of a century has witnessed the conclusion of three China-U.S. Joint Communiqués which have facilitated our expansion of exchanges and cooperation in various fields and proper handling of differences between our two countries. I believe that so long as we continue to strictly abide by the principles as set forth in the three China-U.S. Joint Communiqués, China-U.S relations will make steady and sound progress.
I hope that the development of China-U.S. relations can play a positive role in promoting mutual respect, peaceful coexistence and common development among countries around the world with different histories, cultures, social systems and levels of development.
Let us, the Chinese and Americans, join hands and, together with people around the world, work hard to bring about a new century of peace, stability and prosperity.
Allow me to thank you, Mr. President, once again for your warm welcome.

第四篇        Passage 4

Dear Colleagues,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
I am so glad to have you with us in Shanghai in this golden autumn for a review of all the agenda items of the APEC Ministerial Meeting. Allow me to extend, on behalf of the Chinese Government, our warm welcome to all of you.
As you have seen for yourselves, Shanghai is a vigorous and dynamic city and an epitome of the rapid economic and social development in China. It is making momentous progress in its modernization drive thanks to the development efforts. The ancient "Oriental Pearl" is shining more splendidly in the new century.
The past decade is also one of rapid expansion of regional cooperation and remarkable     achievements of APEC. APEC has set up Bogor goals of achieving trade and investment liberalization by 2010 for developed members and by 2020 for developing ones.  APEC has created a unique approach featuring a combination of individual and collective actions. It has vigorously promoted the development of a multilateral trading regime and carried out various forms of economic and technical cooperation. There is no doubt that APEC has become one of the most important economic forums in the region and even in the world. It has provided rare opportunities for dialogue and exchange of views by leaders of member economies in the Asia-Pacific and for discussions on frontier issues related to the global and regional economy.  It has played a guiding role in the formulation of policy frameworks on many issues. Therefore, APEC has made positive contribution to maintaining peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific and enhancing its economic prosperity and development.
The APEC success is attributable not only to the common aspiration of all its members for a sustainable economic growth through cooperation but also to the APEC approach of voluntarism, consensus-building, flexibility, and gradualism, an approach that suits the region. A more important factor for its success is that it has stood at the forefront and advanced with the times in response to the latest development in the global and regional economy.
This is the first APEC ministerial meeting in the new century. We are faced with many new opportunities and challenges. The economic growth of the world and the Asia-Pacific has, on the whole, slowed down. The impact of the terrorist attacks on 11 September on the economy has become visible. How to promote growth and restore confidence in the market is an issue on the top of our agenda. Meanwhile, the development of economic globalization and the New Economy has brought about more benefits and business opportunities for the region and people. But, how to enable people from all sectors to benefit from it without widening the development gaps between them is a challenge we must take up. The multilateral trading system is also at a crucial juncture. The WTO Conference to be held in Doha in November has attracted worldwide attention. In addition, how to give full play to the unique role of APEC, deepen cooperation and maintain steady economic growth in the region against the general economic slowdown in the Asia-Pacific and the world? These are the issues we must address.
In view of this, we have decided on the theme of this year's APEC meetings, that is, "Meeting New Challenges in the New Century: Achieving Common Prosperity through Participation and Cooperation". In the coming two days, we will discuss the following issues centering on this theme:
I. Advancing trade and investment. We will further exchange views within APEC on how to contribute to the 4th WTO Ministerial Conference and make specific recommendations on capacity building. The individual action plans for trade and investment liberalization, trade facilitation principles and other new initiatives will be main topics of our discussion.
II. Sharing the benefits of globalization and New Economy. We will discuss ways to strengthen the tripartite cooperation among government, business sectors and academic and training institutions on the basis of the outcome of the APEC High-Level Meeting on Human Capacity Building. APEC should establish a more effective participation mechanism in the course of economic and technical cooperation. Meanwhile, we will endorse the e-APEC Strategy, a long-term, action-oriented strategy for APEC to build a digital society in the region.
III. Promoting a sustainable economic growth of the Asia-Pacific region. We hope that our discussions will help us to expand consensus on ways to respond to the challenges facing the global   economic situation. We should take effective fiscal and financial measures to stabilize the market, restore confidence and facilitate growth so as to enable all the APEC economies to come out, as soon as possible, of the economic slowdown and the shadow of the 11 September terrorist attacks and onto the road to a sustained and steady growth. To this end, we will continue to cooperate with finance ministers, increase dialogues on macro-economic policies among the APEC members and make progress in capacity building in the financial sector, with a view to laying a solid foundation for the future economic development in the region.
At the same time, we will forge closer ties with a wide range of groups and organizations and expand exchanges and cooperation with people from all walks of life so as to enable the business community, young people, women and people from other sectors to benefit from APEC economic cooperation.
Dear Colleagues,
Autumn is a season for harvest. Thanks to the hard work by our officials over the past few months, all the preparation work for this year's APEC meetings is by and large completed. I am convinced that this Ministerial Meeting will produce rich deliverables in all the above-mentioned fields to be submitted to this year's Economic Leaders Meeting. I hope that we will not only produce practical results but also inject fresh vigor to APEC development in its second decade and work out a blueprint for its future development.   
I am sure that I can count on you for your support to China in chairing this meeting. I hope that you will demonstrate a practical, flexible and cooperative spirit in the coming two days. I believe that with your close collaboration, this meeting will be a great success.
Thank you.

2007-12-08 17:04:48 来自青青岛社区
回复:【┳⑦号小妖┳】

第六单元     Unit  6
旅游观光     Tour and Sightseeing


I.        阅读材料 Reading Material

第一篇        Passage 1  
    The Grand Canyon

     Its beauty is astounding, its magnitude overwhelming. At the first sight of this immense abyss, one of the greatest natural wonders of North America, you feel dizzy and elated. Here, unique perspectives mock conventional understandings of distances. From most viewpoints the pinion and juniper forest continuing on from the brink of the far rim is about eight miles away, but it seems less than half that. The turbid Colorado River, glimpsed between an avenue of vertical cliffs deep enough to conceal the Empire State Building, is incredibly three miles out and one mile down.
The canyon has many disconcerting contradictions. Its yawning gulf of space is serene, but it is hemmed in by a topography of chilling savageness. Although the rocks are stark and gaunt, their beauty is ethereal. Distances are measured in miles, not feet.
Light is the magician of the canyon. The sinking sun heralds a performance of unique natural splendor. The colored layers of rock burst alight, burning with a ruby and gold light like massive walls of glittering fireworks. The mighty temples are momentarily leafed in rich gold and lacquers. Velvet blank shadows emphasize their brilliance, while the depths of the canyon are flooded by an ocean of vermilion dusk.
As you watch, the crisp edge of night advances upward, eclipsing the smoldering colors until there is at eye level only a single band of burnished gold lying across the canyon. Then the narrow light disappears abruptly and the canyon becomes a gulf of darkness. Perhaps a distant campfire, miles away, can be seen glimmering like a fallen star. With the coming of dawn the magnificent performance begins anew, this time in reverse.
Flat, hot daylight bleaches the tints out of the layered rocks and blends them in a haze of delicate blue. Often small thunderstorms take shape before you eyes and travel up the canyon. After the rain, fleecy clouds float upward in small gentle puffs. In winter, snow falls upward as flakes are borne out of the canyon on currents of air. On very cold days crystallized snow collected by the wind sparkles as if it were gold dust falling into the canyon. Occasionally the entire canyon is filled with soft cloud and you feel you can walk across it.
The Grand Canyon comes closer to illustrating the realities of eternity than, perhaps, any other natural phenomenon on earth. Apart from its great depth, width and length, it has a fourth dimension―time. Hendrik Van Loon described eternity as a rock, one hundred miles high, wide and long, where once every thousand years a little bird sharpens its beak. When the rock has worn away, the historian wrote, an eternity will have passed.
Compared to the immense span of time recorded in its rocky walls, man is new to the Grand Canyon. Three thousand years ago hunters used the remote caves in the canyon as shrines, where they left split-twig figures of deer, antelope and bighorn sheep. But little is known of these early visitors. Two thousand years later Pueblo Indians made their homes in small houses, mainly along the rims. They abandoned the area, probably because of drought, in 1276.
In the twelfth century a small tribe of Havasupai Indians found refuge in a long side canyon. These peaceful Indians continue to live in the riverside oasis of what is now called Havasu Canyon. Accessible only on foot or on horseback, the Indians were provided with prefabricated bungalows delivered by helicopters.
The first official exploration of the canyon was undertaken in 1857 by Lieutenant Joseph Christmas Ives, who wrote, “…after entering it there is nothing to do but leave. Ours has been the first and will doubtless be the last party of whites to visit this profitless locality. It seems intended by Nature that the Colorado River along the greater portion of its lonely and majestic way, shall be forever unvisited and undisturbed.” He could not have been more wrong.
Every year two and a half million people from all over the world visit the Grand Canyon. The first useful move to protect it was made by Theodore Roosevelt in 1908, and since 1919 it has been a national park of 1,052 square miles. But the Grand Canyon is unlike any of America’s national parks, for you cannot wander freely through its wilderness. Exploring the Grand Canyon is mountaineering in reverse. Even people accustomed to wild places find it difficult to realize that they have driven directly to the top of a cool and sometimes snowy “mountain” seven thousand feet high, and are overlooking a terrain which is rugged like the Rockies, but which is also a hot and arid desert.
National park wardens discourage people from wandering into the canyon because the grueling part, unlike ordinary mountain climbing, does not begin until you need to get out of the canyon. You then have to fight gravity, and the effects of altitude, when you are most tired. Every drop of water has to be carried and climbing from the bottom to the top takes a full day. Only the most dedicated and fit hikers, armed with water bottles and permits, may tramp down to the campground by the river at Phantom Ranch.
Nevertheless, there are other ways of exploring the Grand Canyon. You can ride down the steep zigzag trail by mule―not dangerous, but terrifying. Or you can ride the two hundred rapids of the Colorado River through the canyon. For decades it has been regarded as the fiercest stretch of white water in the world. Every summer sixteen thousand people float through the canyon. And it is they, men, women and children, who probably come nearest to terms with the reality of the canyon.
In large inflatable rafts or small wooden dories they ride the rapids, floating peacefully down the calm stretches and camping on the river’s small beaches. Once committed there is no turning back. For ten days, drenched by the water that created the canyon and lulled to sleep by its thunder, they can experience the Grand Canyon, Nature’s greatest feat of engineering.

课文词语  Words and Expressions from the Text
The Grand Canyon                     大峡谷
abyss                                深谷
elate                                 得意; 欢欣
pinion                                矮松
juniper                               刺柏
turbid                                烟雾重重的
disconcerting                          使困窘;使为难的
serene                                安详的,平静的
topography                            地貌
stark                                 光秃秃的
gaunt                                 贫瘠的
ethereal                               非人间的; 美妙的
burst alight                            点燃
lacquer                               漆
vermilion                             苍茫
herald                                预告
eclipse                               使失去颜色
smoldering                            慢燃的
burnished                             锃亮的;抛光的
bleach                                冲淡
tint                                   黎明时天空浓淡不同的青色
blend                                 融合;混合
haze                                  烟雾
fleecy clouds                           朵朵白云
crystallized snow                        结晶的雪
eternity                                永恒
beak                                  鸟嘴
shrine                                 神殿,圣地
antelope                               羚羊
prefabricated bungalow                   活动平房     
grueling                               令人筋疲力尽的
drench                                浸泡
lull                                   使安静
feat                                   功绩

第一篇        Passage 2
Sightseeing in Beijing       

A Modern Look for an Ancient City
Beijing, the Capital of the People’s Republic of China, has a history of thousands of years and previously served as the capital of the Jin (1115-1234), Yuan (1271-1368), and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties. Beijing has many ancient architectural complexes such as the 600-year-old Imperial Palace; the Summer Palace, which is China’s largest imperial garden; famous institutions of higher learning such as Beijing and Qinghua Universities; and National Library of China, China’s largest library, with a collection of paintings, calligraphy, classical books, periodicals and materials going back through the ages.
Beijing today covers an area of 16,808 square kilometers, 23 times that of 50 years ago. Roads have been widened and high buildings have been built in the city. Beijing has become an international metropolis with a population of 13.82 million.
The central north-south axis of Beijing was determined according to the principles of traditional architecture 700 years ago, when the city, then known as Dadu (the Great Capital) was built by Kublai Khan, the founding emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. In the 16th century, many structures were built along the 7.8-kilometer central axis, including Yongdingmen Gate, the Forbidden City, and the Drum and Bell Towers. Ten years ago, the International Olympic Sports Center and Asian Games Village were built on the northern section of the axis, which by that time had been extended to 13 kilometers.
In the 1970s, Beijing’s first Underground Railroad line was completed. When the Fuxinmen Overpass was built, Beijingers had their first look at a cloverleaf overpass. Since then, 124 overpasses have been built in Beijing, and the overpasses at Sanyuan, Siyuan, and Tianningsi compete for magnificence.
The second and third ring roads have been turned into high-speed highways, and the Beijing-Shijiazhuang, Beijing-Tongzhou, Capital Airport, and Badaling Expressways have now opened to traffic. The total length of highways and expressways in Beijing has reached 3,800 kilometers.
Twenty years ago, Beijing built 4.11 million square meters of housing a year, but housing was still a problem for many. Some people lived in compounds occupied by many families or in simple dwellings. Since the implementation of the reform and opening policies, great changes have taken place with each passing day.
In 1981, construction began on the Sheraton Great Wall Hotel, designed by Beckert International, an American company, and during the following decade, a series of hotels, covering a total of five million square meters of ground space was completed by introducing foreign funds and encouraging organizations and individuals to develop the service industry in Beijing. In addition to the major downtown business centers such as Wangfujing, Xidan, and Qianmen, there are 80 modern shopping centers, each having a commercial floor space of 10,000 square meters.
Over the past 20 years, the municipal government of Beijing has invested 100 billion yuan in water, power, central heating, roads, and telecommunications. Beijing now has 14 satellite towns and 371 residential areas. The annual completion of housing area exceeds 15 million square meters, and the average living space per person has increased from six square meters 20 years ago to 14.85 square meters.
Although Beijing has been modernized, it still retains its historical and cultural aspects. The unique features of 25 protected historical and cultural areas in Beijing have long attracted tourists from home and abroad.
In and around Beijing there are 30 rivers and 26 lakes that not only supply water for the city but also serve as scenic spots. In order to protect and re-create the look of the ancient capital, a large sewage-treatment project is now under way, using an investment of 1 billion yuan, on the city’s major rives and lakes, including the city’s Moat, Changhe and Tongzi River, and Yuyuantan and Beihai Lakes.
Some 62 percent of the Beijing area is hilly. Twenty years ago, Beijing suffered from dust pollution, but great changes have taken place since the forestation project started in and around Beijing and Tianjin in 1986. At the end of 1998, 39 percent of the urban area of Beijing was covered with trees and flowers. The green space in Beijing now averages 8.18 square meters per person, and the dust has decreased from 21 tons per square kilometer per month to 16.5 tons per square kilometer in the center of the city. The Miyun Reservoir, one of the major water supplies of Beijing, has 60.4 percent forest coverage.

Some Major Places of Interest in Beijing

The Great Wall
Known as the fourth wonder of the world, the Great Wall runs from Shanhaiguan Pass on the shores of Bohai Bay at the east end to Jiayuguan Pass in Gansu Province at the west end. It rises and falls, twists and turns along the ridges of mountain chains in northern China, stretching for 12,000 li (6000km) across seven provinces. Therefore, it is known in China as the “Ten-Thousand-Li Great Wall”.
The construction of the Wall began during the Warring States Period in the 5th century B.C. At that time, some ducal states in north China began to build defense walls in their own land in order to ward off the nomadic tribes further north. In the 3rd century B.C. when Emperor Qin Shihuang conquered all the other states and became the first emperor of a unified China, he had these walls linked up and extended. Reinforcement and renovations were carried out during successive dynasties. In the Ming times (14th---17th century) the Wall underwent major repairs and became what it is today.
The section best preserved and most often visited is the Great Wall at Badaling. Built solidly with regular lath stone and large-sized bricks, the Wall at Badaling is 8.5 meters high and 5.7 meters broad. Five horses or ten people can walk along it abreast. There are ramparts, embrasures, peepholes and apertures for shooting. Two-storied watchtowers are built in at 100-meter intervals. The top-story watchtowers were designed for observing enemy movements.
It is estimated that some 180 million cubic meters of tamped earth and 60 million cubic meters of stone and bricks must have been used to build the Great Wall. So it was an immense engineering project to obtain, transport the building material and construct the Great Wall.
Today, as the most important historical monument in China and one of the world’s famous architectural wonders, the Great Wall attracts large number of tourists from home and abroad each year.

Tian’anmen Square
Tian’anmen Square is located right in front of the Imperial Palace in the center of Beijing. It is one of the largest squares in the world and its 440,000-square-meter area can accommodate half a million people at one time. To the north of the square is the magnificent Tian’anmen Gate-tower. At the south is Qianmen or “Front Gate”. Both these gate-towers date back to the 17th century and typify classical Chinese Architecture. Now the square is flanked by massive modern buildings, the Great Hall of the People on the west, and the Museum of Chinese History and the Museum of Chinese Revolution on the east. At the center of the square stands the Monument to the People’s Heroes. To the south of the Monument lies Chairman Mao Memorial Hall. The bright Five-star red flag flies high on the square.
On the white marble base with fine bas-reliefs and 10-meteer high red walls stands the splendid double-eaves and yellow-glaze-tiled Tian’anmen Gate tower. The gate used to be the outer entrance to the Imperial Palace. It has five archways with the central one used exclusively by the emperor. A moat named Golden Water River flows along the foot of the gate-tower and spanned by five carved marble bridges, one for each archway. Each of the bridge is guarded by two stone lions and two towering stone pillars carved with cloud and dragon motifs. All these match perfectly and form a single unit of masterpiece of art signifying power and beauty.
During the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties, Tian’anmen Gate was where the emperors issued imperial edict and held grand celebrations.
In modern Chinese history, many important historical events took place on Tian’anmen Square. For example, the well-known May Fourth Movement in 1919, the December Ninth Patriotic Students Movement in 1935, the grand ceremony to celebrate the founding of the People’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949 are all associated with the name of Tian’anmen.

The Summer Palace
The Summer Palace is situated 15 kilometers northwest of Beijing. It is the largest and best-preserved imperial Chinese gardens.
The Summer Palace is famous not only for its beautiful scenery but also for its long history. Originally, it was a natural lake formed by spring water and surrounded by a hill called the Jar Hill. In 1153, Wanyan Liang, an emperor of the Jin Period, made it an imperial palace for short stays when he was away from the capital. In the Yuan Dynasty, the lake was enlarged and became a reservoir providing water for the court and the capital. In the Ming Dynasty, the royal family had a temple built on the hill, which was named the Perfect and Quiet Temple. In 1750, in the celebration of the 60th anniversary of his mother’s birthday, Emperor Qianlong, the fourth emperor of the Qing Dynasty, had the Perfect and Quiet Temple rebuilt. He renamed the hill the Longevity Hill and the reconstructed garden the Clear Ripples Garden. In 1860 the garden was burned down by Anglo-French invasion forces. In 1888, when Emperor Guangxu was in reign, Dowager Cixi had it reconstructed by embezzling the navy funds under the pretext of building a navy training site, but it was never once used for that purpose. Cixi renamed it Summer Palace and made it her residence for the greater part of the year. In 1900, the palace garden was again badly damaged by the allied forces of the eight imperialist powers. It was reconstructed in 1903 and opened as a public park in 1924------13 years after the overthrow of the last imperial dynasty.
The palace garden covers an area of 290 hectares, three-fourths of which is water, mainly Kunming Lake at the foot of the Longevity Hill. It has more than 3,000 halls, mansions, towers, pavilions, corridors, walkways, bridges and other structures, each having its unique style, but they all bend harmoniously with the landscape. They are many tourist attractions in the garden.
The Hall of Benevolence and Longevity was where the Empress Dowager and Emperor Guangxu handled court affairs, received government officials and foreign diplomatic envoys.
The Hall of Happiness and Longevity was where Cixi lived during her stay at the Summer Palace.
One of the marvels of the Summer Palace is the Long Corridor which runs for 728 meters along the northern shore of the Kunming Lake and connects with the buildings at the southern foot of the Longevity Hill. It is the longest garden corridor consisting of 273 sections. On its cross-beams, the ceiling and side pillars are all paintings of historical and legendary figures, famous Chinese landscapes, flowers and birds, and there are more than 14,000 pieces of pictures in all. So it is actually an art gallery.
At the west end of the long corridor is the Marble Boat. The 36-meter long “boat” was carved out of huge marble. It is where Cixi relaxed in mid-summer.
The first attraction on entering the park is the marble Seventeen-arch Bridge spanning the blue-green waters of the lake in a pleasant curve. All the 500 balusters along its 150-meter length are topped by more than 540 carved lions, each in a different pose. The bridgeheads are guarded by pairs of legendary formidable animals.
With the background of the Jade Spring Hill and the Western Hill in the distance and the Longevity Hill, the Kunming Lake and numerous graceful garden buildings, flowers and trees inside the garden, the Summer Palace has the poetic touch of a traditional Chinese painting. It is a classic example Chinese Garden-building art.

The Temple of Heaven
Located in southeast Beijing and built in 1420 during the Ming Dynasty, the Temple of Heaven used to be the place where the emperors of Ming and Qin Dynasties worshiped heaven for good harvest and performed sacrificial rituals. It is now one of the largest public parks in the capital.
The Temple of Heaven covers an area of 273 hectares. It consists of three main structures on a north-south axis: the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest in the north, the Imperial Vault of Heaven in the center and the Circular Mound Altar of Heaven in the south.
The Temple of Heaven is mostly sky blue in color. It has two surrounding walls, both of which are round to the north and square to the south. Such a pattern symbolizes the ancient belief that the heaven is round and the earth square.
The main temple, the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest, is a lofty cone-shaped wooden structure joined together entirely by wooden bars, laths, rafters, and brackets without the use of iron or bronze. This brilliant example of ancient Chinese architecture measures 38 meters in height and 30 meters in diameter. Set with deep blue glazed tiles, the roof is crowned at the top with a huge golden ball. The triple eaves of the roof are supported by 28 massive wooden pillars. The four central columns, called the “Dragon-Well Pillar”, represent the 4 seasons. Surrounding these 4 columns, there are 2 rings, one inside the other, of 12 columns each: the inner ring symbolizes the 12 months and the outer, the 12 divisions of day and night; the pillars of the inner and the outer rings together stand for the 24 solar terns or the 24 divisions of the solar year in the traditional Chinese calendar. It was in this hall that the emperors of Ming and Qin Dynasties prayed for good harvest every year on the 15th of the first month of the lunar year.
The Imperial Vault of Heaven, circular structure with deep blue glazed tiles, was used to house the memorial tablets of the “Supreme Ruler of Heaven”. Around it is the Echo Wall, where the acoustic effects are such that a whisper at one end of the wall can be heard at some distance at the other end.
The Circular Mound Altar is a 3-tiered circular marble terrace enclosed by marble balustrades on each tier. The platform is laid with marble stones in nine concentric circles, and everything is arranged in multiples of the number 9. Every year on the winter solstice sacrifices were offered at the altar by the emperor who, surrounded first by the circles of the terrace and their railings and then by the horizon, seemed to be in the center of the universe.  

课文词语  Words and Expressions from the Text
ancient architectural complexes                      古建筑群
overpass                                        高架道路;天桥
clover-leaf overpass                               意为“四通八达的立交桥”
compound                                       这里指北京的“四合院”
sewage-treatment                                 污水处理
forestation                                       造林
moat                                           护城河
reinforcement                                    加固
renovation                                       修复
lath stone                                       条石
rampart                                         宇墙
embrasures                                      垛口
apertures for shooting                              射击孔
historical monument                               历史名胜
accommodate                                    容纳
the Great Hall of the People                         人民大会堂
the Museum of Chinese History           ,          中国历史博物馆
the Military Museum of the Chinese People’s Revolution  中国人民革命军事博物馆
the Monument to the People’s Heroes                 人民英雄纪念碑
Chairman Mao Memorial Hall                       毛主席纪念堂
double-eave                                      重檐的
glaze-tiled                                       琉璃瓦的
imperial edict                                    诏令
the Perfect and Quiet Temple                        圆静寺
the Longevity Hill                                 万寿山                       
the Clear Ripples Garden                           清猗园   
embezzling the navy funds                          挪用海军军费                 
the allied forces of the eight imperialist powers          八国联军                       
the Hall of Benevolence and Longevity                仁寿殿
the Hall of Happiness and Longevity                  乐寿堂
the Marble Boat                                  石舫   
the Seventeen-arch Bridge                          十七孔桥   
legendary formidable animals                       传说中的怪兽   
the Jade Spring Hill                               玉泉山     
he Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest                   祈年殿
the Imperial Vault of Heaven                        皇穹宇
the Circular Mound Altar                           环丘坛
wooden bars, laths, rafters and brackets                木条、板条、椽和斗拱
24 solar terms                                     24个节气
solar/ lunar year                                   阳历/阴历年
memorial tablet                                    牌位
the triple eaves of the roof                           三重檐屋顶
Supreme Ruler of Heaven                           皇天上帝               
the Echo Wall                                     回音壁
marble balustrade                                  大理石栏杆
winter solstice                                    冬至
offer sacrifices to                                  祭祀
railing                                           栏杆;围栏;扶手

II. 口译实践 Interpretation Practice
听译下列课文 Listen to the Following Passages and Interpret Them:

第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1(E---C)
   
相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
Giza                           吉萨
mastaba                        古埃及墓室
step-pyramid                    阶梯式金字塔
the Great Pyramid                大金字塔
lose…off the top                 顶层剥落
cardinal point of the compass       罗盘的(东西南北四个)基本方向
horizontal cross section            横切面
spiral ramp                      螺旋梯
long levers with a short angled foot  支点短的长杠杆
sphinx                                                    狮身人面像
granary                         谷仓
            
It is the one and the only wonder which does not require a description by early historians and poets. It is the one and only wonder that does not need speculations concerning its appearance, size and shape. It is the oldest, yet it is the only surviving of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt.
The tradition of pyramid building started in Ancient Egypt as a sophistication of the idea of a mastaba or “platform” covering the royal tomb. Later, several stacked mastabas were used. Early pyramids, such as the Step Pyramid of King Zoser (Djoser) at Saqqara by the famous Egyptian architect, Imhotep, illustrated this connection.
Pyramid building was at its height from the fourth through the sixth Dynasties. Scores of them have been discovered. However, the largest and most famous of all the pyramids should be the pyramids at Giza, which consist of three pyramids. The well-known one is the Great Pyramid at Giza built by King Khufu.
When it was built, the Great Pyramid stood over 146 meters. Over the years, it lost 10 meters off its top and today it is 136 meters in height. Before 19th century A.D. it ranked as the tallest structure on earth. The Pyramid’s base covers an area over 5.2 hectares and the sloping angle of its sides is 51 degrees and 52 minutes. Each side is carefully oriented with one of the cardinal points of the compass, that is, north, south, east and west. The horizontal cross section of the Pyramid is square at any level.
The structure of the Great Pyramid consists of 2.3 million blocks of stone. The average weight is over two tons a piece, with the heaviest weighing 15 tons each. How the ancient Egyptians moved these huge stones is still not sure. Several theories have been proposed. One theory involves the construction of a straight or spiral ramp that was raised as the construction proceeded. This ramp coated with mud and water, eased the displacement of the stone blocks pushed into place. A second theory suggests that the blocks were placed by using long levers with a short angled foot. No matter what has been said, it proves to be hard in ancient time. The Greek historian Herodotus reported in the fifth century B.C. that his Egyptian guides told him that 100,000 men mere employed for three mouths a year for twenty years to build the Great Pyramid.
Together with the Great Pyramid are two other pyramids at Giza. One is the Pyramid of Khafra, Khufu’s son. This one is 3 meters lower, but more complete and wonderful. The twenty meter high Sphinx stands aside, attracting the eyes of tourists. It is said that except the claws, the Sphinx is made out of only one piece of natural rock. The other pyramid is for Khafra’s son, Menkaure. It has been suggested that there are enough blocks in the three pyramids to build a 3- meter high, 0.3-meter thick wall around France. The area covered by the Great Pyramids can accommodate St Peter’s in Rome, the Cathedrals of Florence and Milan, and Westminster and St Paul’s in London combined.
Throughout their history, the Pyramids of Giza have stimulated human imagination. They were referred to as “The Granaries of Joseph” and “The Mountains of Pharaoh”. When Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798, his pride was expressed through his famous quote: “Soldiers! From the top of these Pyramids, 40 centuries are looking at us.”
Today, the Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx have fascinated people from all over the world-tourists, mathematicians and archeologists come to visit and explore them.

第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2(E--C)   
  
相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
centennial                                        百年纪念
be commissioned                                  受委托作某事
pedestal                                         底座
auction                                          拍卖
prizefight                                        拳击
secondary skeletal framework                        辅助框架
editorial pages                                    社论版
centennial gift                                    百年庆礼   
National Park Service                                        国家公园管理处
World Heritage Site                                世界遗产

The Statue of Liberty standing at the entrance to New York harbor is a gift given by the people of France to the people of the United States over one hundred years ago in recognition of the friendship of the two nations established during the American Revolution. Over the years, the Statue of Liberty has become a representative of freedom and democracy of people everywhere.
To commemorate the centennial of the American Declaration of Independence,sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi was commissioned by the French government to design a sculpture in 1876. The Statue was a joint effort between America and France and it was agreed upon that the American people were to build the pedestal, and the French people were responsible for the Statue and its assembly here in the United States. However, lack of funds was a problem on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
In France, public fees, various forms of entertainment, and a lottery were among the methods used to raise funds. In the United States, benefit theatrical events, art exhibitions, auctions and prizefights assisted in providing needed funds. However, fund raising for the pedestal was going particularly slowly, so Joseph Pulitzer (noted for the Pulitzer Prize) opened up the editorial pages of his newspaper, The World, to support the fund raising effort. Pulitzer used his newspaper to criticize both the rich who had failed to finance the pedestal construction and the middle class who were content to rely upon the wealthy to provide the funds. Pulitzer's campaign of harsh criticism was successful in motivating the people of America to donate.
Financing for the pedestal was completed in August 1885, and pedestal construction was finished in April of 1886. The Statue was completed in France in July 1884. In transit, the Statue was reduced to 350 individual pieces and packed in 214 crates. The Statue arrived in New York Harbor in June of 1885 and was re-assembled on her new pedestal in four months time. The pedestal was designed by architect Richard Morris Hunt and built on Bedloe’s Island. The Statue’s framework was engineered by Gustave Eiffel who later designed the famous tower in Paris, which bears his name. On October 28, 1886, in front of thousands of spectators, President Grover Cleveland dedicated the Statue of Liberty, which was officially titled Liberty Enlightening the World. Since then millions have made pilgrimage to visit her. She was a centennial gift ten years late.
Over the years, Americans shortened the name of the statue. They called it the Statue of Liberty, or Miss Liberty. The care and the administration of the statue changed several times. In 1956, the name of Bedloe’s Island was changed to Liberty Island and became part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument.
The statue wears a loose robe. Her right hand holds a torch----a golden light. Her left hand holds a tablet which shows the date of the American Declaration of Independence-----July 4th, 1776. The statue wears a crown on her head. The crown has 7 points, each of these rays representing the light of freedom. A chain representing oppression lies broken at her feet. The height from base to torch is 151 feet. The height from the foundation of the pedestal to the torch is 305 feet. She weighs 225 tons (100 tons of copper and 125 tons structural steel). Visitors may climb into her head for a spectacular view of New York Harbor. At night the statue is floodlighted, and the lights that shine from her torch can be seen for miles.
By the 1980, the statue badly needed repairs. Again people on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean cooperated to raise money. In May of 1982, President Ronald Reagan appointed Lee Iacocca to head up a private sector effort to restore the Statue of Liberty. Fund raising began for the $87 million restoration under a public/private partnership between the National Park Service and the Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, Inc., to date the most successful such partnership in American history. In 1984, at the start of the Statue's restoration, the United Nations designated the Statue of Liberty as a World Heritage Site. On July 5, 1986 the newly restored Statue re-opened to the public during Liberty Weekend, which celebrated her centennial. Today thousands of people still visit the statue every day. They reach the statue by boat. Many people climb the 354 steps to the crown. Or they ride up to observation areas in an elevator. Or they study the story of the statue in a museum in the monument.

第三篇(英译汉)Passage 3(E-C)

相关词语    Related Words and Expressions
falls                   瀑布
wonder                奇迹
illuminate              照亮
churning               (波浪)翻腾的
hydroelectric plant       水力发电厂
divert                 转移;转向
treaty                 条约
slide                  山崩;土崩
tumble                滚下
ledge                 岩架, 岩脊, 岩石突出部
erosion                腐蚀;侵蚀

Niagara Falls is one of the most spectacular natural wonders of North America. It is on the Niagara River, about halfway between Lake Erie and Ontario. The river forms part of the United States-Canadian border.
Niagara Falls actually consists of two waterfalls, the Horseshoe Falls and the American Falls. The Horseshoe Falls is on the Canadian side of the border in the province of Ontario. The American Falls is on the United States side in the state of New York. At night, wide beams of colored lights illuminate the falls. About 10 million people visit Niagara Falls annually.
Niagara Falls attracts visitors throughout the year. However, most visitors come during the tourist season, from April 1 to October 31. Several steamers called the Maid of the Mist take sightseers close to the churning waters at the base of the falls. Parks line both sides of the river near Niagara Falls. Excellent views of the falls may be seen from such sites as Prospect Point, Table Rock, and Terrapin Point. Four observation towers, ranging from 86 to 150 meters high, also provide fine views of the falls.
United States and Canadian hydroelectric plants divert some of the water through tunnels from the Niagara River before it reaches Niagara Falls. For scenic reasons, however, the amount of water that may be diverted is regulated by a treaty between the United States and Canada. The treaty states that at least 2,800 cubic meters of water a second must pass over the falls during daylight hours of the tourist season. At other times, the flow may be decreased to 1,400 cubic meters a second.
Some people believed that the rapid development of tourism and industry ruined the scenic beauty of the Niagara Falls area. In 1885, the government of New York took control of the land bordering the American Falls. It then established the Niagara Falls Park, covering about 430 acres (174 hectares) on the land. In 1886, Canada established Queen Victoria Park on 196 acres (79 hectares) of land near the Horseshoe Falls. Since the 1880’s, much more land in the Niagara Falls area has been set aside for parks, especially on the Canadian side.
Rockslides have gradually changed the appearance of Niagara Falls through the years. In 1931, about 73,000 metric tons of rock fell from the Niagara Falls. Several years later, approximately 27,000 metric tons of rock broke off the upper edge of the Horseshoe Falls. In 1954, about 167,800 metric tons of rock tumbled from the American Falls and nearby Prospect Point.
In 1969, U.S. Army engineers built a dam to stop the flow of water temporarily over the American Falls. A board of experts from the United States and Canada then studied the rock ledge to determine how to prevent further erosion. However, the board decided that the cost of halting erosion would be too high. It recommended that nothing be done except small measures to improve public safety.

2007-12-08 17:05:24 来自青青岛社区
回复:【┳⑦号小妖┳】

第四篇(汉译英)Passage 4(C---E)
     
相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
考古探测              Archeological exploration
兵马俑                terra-cotta warriors and horses
穿着战袍、打着绑腿    wear battle tunics and puttee
前锋                  vanguard
主力部队              main body
后卫                  rear guard
两翼                  flank guard
长兵器                long shaft-weapon

秦始皇兵马俑是当地村民1974年3月在田里打井时偶然发现的。经考古学家探测,认定为秦代兵马俑坑。后经勘探和试掘,共发现三处兵马俑坑,按发现时间把它们分别定名为兵马俑一、二、三号坑。三个坑总面积为22,780平方米。
这一发现震惊中外。为了保护这些罕见的历史文物,1975年国务院批准在一号坑原址上建一座占地16,300平方米的博物馆。1979年国庆节博物馆正式对外开放。此后,兵马俑3号坑、2号坑展厅和铜车马馆也陆续建成, 并对外开放。现在, 秦始皇兵马俑博物馆被国十大名胜之一,被联合国教科文组织列为世界文化遗产。
    一号坑呈长方形,东西长230米,南北宽62米,深5米,面积16,620平方米。一号坑内的兵马俑完全按当时的实战军阵排列。坑道的东端长廊里站立着三排武士俑,每排70,共210件。这些武士身着战袍,脚打绑腿,手持弓弩,面向东方,是整个军阵的前锋部队。其后是十道土夯的隔墙隔成的11个过道,里面排列着步兵与车兵相间的38路纵队。兵俑全部身穿铠甲,手持长兵器。他们是整个军阵的主力部队。另外,在主力部队的南北和西头,分别有一排武士俑,他们都面朝外,分别是主力部队的左右翼和后卫部队。在试掘的960平方米范围内,出土武士俑500多个,战车4辆,挽马24匹。据测量,一号坑共有兵马俑6000多件。
    二号坑呈曲尺形,面积6000平方米,是一个由四个独立的单元、四个不同的兵种编制而成的混合军阵。第一单元是由334个弩兵组成的小方阵。第二单元是由64乘战车组成的方阵。每乘战车有三个军士。第三单元是由19乘战车和100个兵俑组成的方阵。第四单元是由6乘战车、124个骑兵和鞍马组成的方阵。四个单元既是一个互相紧密相连的大军阵,又是四个独立的、灵活机动的、能攻能守的小军阵。据估计,二号坑可出土兵马俑1,500多件。
三号呈凹字形,面积520平方米,仅有4马1车和68尊陶俑。三号坑内的兵俑是环绕周壁面对面夹道排列。他们手持一种专门用于仪仗的无刃长兵器。同时,坑内还发现有用于战前占卜和祈祷的动物骨头和鹿角残迹。因此,考古学家认为3号坑可能是整个军阵的指挥部。
三个坑呈 “品” 字形排列, 形成一个庞大的军事场面:8,000 兵马,浩浩荡荡,待命征战,显示出一幅气势磅礴,雄伟壮观的动人场面。这是秦始皇为自己所造的一支守陵的卫戍部队。
三个坑内的陶俑都仿真人塑造,全身彩绘。兵俑的队列布局按将军、武官、武士等不同级别和步兵、车兵、骑兵等不同兵种有序排列,他们容貌各异,个个神态逼真、栩栩如生,显示了中国古代雕塑艺术的高超技艺和民族风格。
    除了数以千计的兵马俑外,三个坑内出土了数以万计的各种青铜武器,主要有刀、剑、矛、戈、 戟、弓、箭、弩、簇。特别引人注目的一把青铜剑,虽在地下埋藏了2000多年,仍不生锈。至今光亮如新,锋利无比,一次能划透20张纸。经检测,这把剑为铜、锡合金,并含有十多种稀有金属,表面经过铬的处理,能防锈防腐。这表明2000多年前中国的铸造工艺和冶金技术已达到惊人的高度。
    1980年12月,考古工作者在秦始皇陵西侧20米处发现了两组大型彩绘铜车马,更是给博物馆增加了新的光彩。根据发现顺序,把这两组铜车马分别命名为一号和二号车。两组铜车均为单辕车,各配四匹马。一号车为“高车”,御手和乘坐的人均站立车上。 二号车叫“安车”,分前后两乘室,中间相隔。御手坐前乘室,主人坐后乘室。后乘室前面及左右两侧各有一车窗,后面留门,可能是供秦始皇灵魂出游时乘坐的。铜车马为真人、真马二分之一大小,由3,400多个零部件组成,并有1,720件金银饰品,显得华丽富贵。据初步研究,铜车马的制造采用了铸、焊、铆、镶、刻等多种工艺。
铜车马的制作工艺高超,造型艺术逼真,是我国历史上最早、制作最精美的青铜珍品,也是世界考古发现的最大青铜器,证明秦代的工艺已经达到很高的水平。

第五篇(汉译英)Passage 5(C---E)
     
相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
藏族自治区              Tibetan Autonomous Region
自然风景区              land of natural beauty
终年积雪                snow- topped throughout the year
世外桃源                    a heaven of peace
沉淀物                            sediment
五花海                  multicolored sea
表达爱慕之情 …         as a token of love
自然生态                natural ecology
生物进化                evolution of organism
地理学                  geology
气象学                            meteorology

九寨沟在四川阿坝藏族自治县南平县境内,是一片纵深达35公里的自然风景区。风景区内原始森林遍布,群山连绵,山顶终年积雪,山谷湖泊纵横,奇珍异兽穿梭往来。进入九寨沟如同进入世外桃源一般,人间烦恼都会置于脑后。
九寨沟是水的天地,九寨沟的水是人间最清澈的水,水构成了九寨沟最富魅力的景色,是九寨沟的灵魂。无论是宁静的湖泊,还是飞泻的瀑布,都是那么的神奇迷人,令人流连忘返。
当地人把九寨沟的湖泊叫做“海子”。九寨沟共有108个海子,虽大小不一,形状各异,却都清澈见底。这些湖泊有的隐匿在峡谷中,有的镶嵌在原始森林中。天晴时,湖中颜色各异的水藻和沉淀物在阳光的照射下,发射出一圈圈斑斓的光环,所以又被人们叫做“五花海”。
当地有一个动人的传说,很久以前,在九寨沟的东山上住着一位美丽善良的女神,西山上住着一位勤劳勇敢的男神。两人日久生情。一天男神为了表达自己的爱慕之情,特意送了一面又大又亮的神镜给女神。女神在接过神镜时,由于心情过于激动,镜子竟然从她颤抖的手中滑落,掉到山下,碎成了108块,从此给九寨沟留下了108个形态各异、晶晶闪亮的湖泊。
九寨沟栖息着几十种珍稀动物,如大熊猫、小熊猫、金丝猴、羚羊等。因此,这里不仅是令人向往的自然风景区,而且是研究自然生态、生物演化和古地理学、古气候学的好地方。同时,这里的民族艺术中心汇集了九寨沟地区最优秀的藏、羌歌舞演员,为数不多的羌族古乐的传人。在这里,你可以欣赏他们的精彩演出,还有那别有风情的藏、羌篝火晚会。

第六篇(汉译英)Passage 6(C---E)
     
相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
横亘于                                push out its spurs into …
巅峰                                main peak                                
祭祀天地                    worship Heaven and Earth
游览区                                tourist spots
汇 合                                converge
无字碑                                wordless tablet
联合国教科文组织        UNESCO----United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
世界自然与文化遗产  World Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites

泰山地处我国山东省的中部,绵延200多公里。泰山横亘于泰安、历城、长清三市之间,以雄伟著称,其巅峰位于泰安市北面,海拔1545米。由于其地处东方,故被尊为五岳之长、古代帝王登基时,都要来泰山举行封禅大典,祭告天地。据传夏、商、周三代就有七十二个君主来这里祈祷。历史上泰山封禅最隆重的是汉武帝和唐玄宗。
泰山有五个游览区,登山路线有东西两路到中天门汇合,直达山顶,总路程9公里,6,566个石级。从中天门上山顶必须经过十八盘,盘道陡峭,像天梯高悬,是较险的地方。但据说此道是古代帝王所取之道,名胜古迹自然更多,所以,大多数人还是选择由此道登山。而西路登山较快,也为很多人喜欢。
盘道尽头是南天门,离泰山顶仅一公里,且山道易登。山顶有供奉女神碧霞元君铜像的寺庙。极顶称天柱峰,因建有玉皇殿,又名玉皇顶。殿门外有无字碑。据考证2100年前,汉武帝树此碑,由于不满意那些御用文人所撰之词,就留此无字碑,以供观光者展开想象。泰山顶上有四大奇观:旭日东升,晚霞夕照,黄河金带,云海玉盘。玉皇顶东面的观日峰是观看日出的最佳之处。
泰山将自然景观和人文景观完美地融为一体。 山上有无以数计的奇石、飞瀑、古松、石桥、古塔、寺庙、亭阁、殿堂。名胜古迹数不胜数,尤其是历代文人学士书法家留下的石刻碑文,令游客目不暇接,叹为观止。
泰山每个季节都有独特的魅力。春天,绿茵茵的山坡上,争奇斗艳的花朵到处可见。夏天,泰山的雷暴雨堪称奇观。秋天,枫树叶满山遍野,蔚蓝色的河水穿流而行。冬天,雪盖群峰松披霜,景观素雅悲壮,别有一番情趣。喜逢艳阳日,极目远眺,重峦叠嶂,尽收眼帘。但遇阴天时,环顾四周,苍茫大地,尽入云海。泰山的日出与日落,闻名遐尔。壮观的自然风景以及不计其数的历史名胜,激发了古代文人书法家,为之舞文弄墨,创作了无数经典佳作。泰山历来是画家和诗人钟情的聚集地。
现代世界也认识到泰山的旅游价值和文化价值。早在1985年,联合国教科文组织世界遗产委员会便将泰山列入联合国“世界自然与文化双遗产名录”之中。

参考译文 Reference Version

第一篇  Passage 1

这是人类唯一一个无需远古时代历史学家及诗人到来描述的奇迹。这是人类唯一一个在外观、大小和形状各方面都无需猜测的奇迹。它是最古老的,也是唯一存留下来的世界七大古迹之一。这就是吉萨大金字塔。
修建金字塔的传统起源于古埃及。最初的绝妙想法是修建一个墓室或平台把王室的墓子罩起来。后来,出现了把几个墓室堆积起来而形成的阶梯式金字塔。由著名建筑师伊姆霍特设计修建的早期金字塔,如国王约塞尔的阶梯式金字塔表明了这种构想。
从第四王朝到第六王朝期间,金字塔的兴建达到了顶峰,现在发现的有几十座。然而,最大最著名的要属在吉萨的金字塔群。吉萨金字塔群由三座金字塔组成,三座中最引人注目的是国王胡夫的大金字塔。
大金字塔原高146米,天长日久,顶部剥落了10米,现高136米。在19世纪以前,它一直是世界上的最高建筑。金字塔基座占地78亩,各个面的倾斜度为51度52分。每个面均按照罗盘的四个方位精心设计,任何高度的横切面均呈正方形。
大金字塔由230万块石头砌成。每块石头平均重量为2吨,最重的15吨。古埃及人是如何搬运这些巨石的至今仍是个谜。但有几种假设:一种说法是建造一种可以根据施工进展而升高的直线式或螺旋式的斜面,在斜面上注上水和泥桨,再将石块缓慢推放到位。第二种说法是石块是用一种支点很短的长杠杆放置的。不管怎么说,在古代这都是很艰巨的工程。希腊历史学家希罗多德曾在公元前五世纪报导说:他的埃及向导告诉他,为修建大金字塔雇用了10万人,每年劳作3个月,共耗时20年。
在吉萨和大金字塔共存的还有另外两座金字塔。一座是胡夫的儿子哈夫拉的。 这座金字塔比大金字塔低3米,但更加完善和壮观,20米高的狮身人面像屹立在旁,吸引着游客的目光。据说这尊狮身人面像除了爪子之外,其余部分均由一整块天然岩石雕琢而成。另一座金字塔是哈夫拉的儿子门卡乌拉的陵墓。据说这三座金字塔所用的石块如果堆积起来,可以砌一面高3米的、厚0.3米、绕法国一周的围墙。三座金字塔所占面积是以下几座大教堂面积之和。它们分别是:罗马的圣&#8226;彼德大教堂,佛罗伦萨大教堂,米兰大教堂,伦敦的西敏寺和圣&#8226;保罗大教堂。
纵贯历史,吉萨的金字塔群一直在激发着人们的想象力。它们被称为“约瑟夫的谷仓”或“法老的山脉”。1798年拿破仑侵占埃及时,曾这样表达他的骄傲:我的士兵们,从金字塔顶往下看,有四千年的历史在注视着我们。
如今,金字塔和狮身人面像吸引着全世界各国人民――游客,数学家及考古学家前去参观和探索。

第二篇  Passage 2

坐落在纽约港入口处的自由女神像是一百年前法国人民送给美国人民的一件礼物。她象征着法、美两国之间在美国独立战争期间建立起的友谊。随着时间的推移,她已成为世界各地人民自由与民主的象征。
为了纪念美国独立一百周年,1876年,雕塑家弗雷德里克&#8226;巴斯奥尔迪受法国政府委托设计一尊雕像。整个雕像的建造工作由法美共同完成。根据协议,美国负责修建神像的底座,而法国负责整个神像的雕塑及其在美国的重新组装。然而,两国都存在着资金不足的问题。
在法国,公共收益,各种娱乐活动及彩票发行是主要集资方式。美国则通过义演、艺术展览、拍卖、拳击比赛来筹措所需资金。然而,在美国为底座筹资的工作进行特别缓慢,于是,约瑟夫&#8226;普利兹(因设普利兹奖而出名)在他的《当代世界》报上开辟了社论版,大力支持集资工作。普利兹在报纸上不仅指责那些不愿提供资助的富人,而且批评那些认为富人终会捐资而聊以自慰的中产阶级。普利兹尖刻的批评成功地激发了美国人民的捐赠热情 。
1885年8月完成了底座所需资金的筹措,1886年4月底座建成。而法国已于1884年完成了神像的雕塑。为了便于运输,神像被分成350个部件,分装在240个大木箱内,于1885年6月运至纽约港。4个月后,神像终于屹立在新建成的底座上。神像的底座由建筑师理查德&#8226;莫利斯设计,建于贝德洛岛上。其框架结构由古斯塔夫&#8226;埃菲尔设计。他后来设计了巴黎著名的以他命名的埃菲尔铁塔。1886年10月28日,在成千上万的观众注目下,格鲁夫&#8226;克利夫兰总统主持了自由女神像的捐赠仪式,并正式命名雕像为“自由照亮世界”。这是一个迟到了10年的百年贺礼。
随着时间的推移,美国人简称雕像为自由女神像或自由女神。雕像的维护和管理几经改变。1956年,贝德洛岛改名为自由岛,并划为自由女神国家纪念馆的一部分。
自由女神身穿长袍,右手高举金光闪闪的火炬, 左手持一本“独立宣言”,上面镌刻着其发表日期――1776年7月4日。
女神头戴象征自由之光的七角花冠。脚下是已被打碎的标志压迫的锁链。雕像从脚到火炬高151英尺,从底座到火炬高305英尺。雕像重225吨,包括100吨铜、125吨铁龙骨。游客可登上女神的头顶的花冠鸟瞰纽约港的胜景。夜间,雕像被泛光灯照得通明,数英里以外也可看到火炬熠熠发光。
到1980年,雕像急待修缮。大西洋两岸的人们又一次携手集资。1982年5月,里根总统任命李&#8226;埃柯卡率先为恢复自由女神昔日风采而私人捐资。国家公园管理处与自由女神――埃利斯岛基金有限公司共同筹资8700万美元,这次公私合作堪称美国历史上此类合作的典范。
1984年,神像修复工作伊始,联合国即宣布自由女神像为世界遗产。1986年7月5日,整修一新的自由女神像在她落成百年纪念日的周末重新向世界开放。今日,每天仍有数以万计的游客前来瞻仰女神像,他们乘游船来到女神脚下,或沿着354级台阶登上花冠,或乘电梯来到观光台,或在纪念馆内了解自由女神的故事。

第二篇        Passage 3

尼亚加拉瀑布是北美地区最宏伟壮观的自然奇观之一。它位于尼亚加拉河上,大致处于伊利湖与安大略湖之间。这条河构成了美国与加拿大之间边境的一段。
尼亚加拉瀑布实际上由两个瀑布组成,即马蹄瀑布和美国瀑布,马蹄瀑布在加拿大境内的安大略省,美国瀑布在美国境内的纽约州。晚间,彩灯投射出巨大的光束,将瀑布映照得通体透亮。每年大约有1000万游客到此游览。
一年中的任何时候,尼亚加拉瀑布都吸引着观光者。然而,大多数游客还是在4月1日到10月31日之间的旅游季节来到此地。几艘名为“雾中仙女”的汽船可以将游人带到瀑布下翻滚的水流间。尼亚加拉瀑布附近公园沿着河的两岸依次排开。从观景台,桌石台,活动屋顶台可以观赏到瀑布的壮美景观。游人也可以借助四座高度在86米与150米之间的观察塔一睹她的风貌。
在尼亚加拉瀑布的上游,美国与加拿大的水力发电厂通过隧道将尼亚加拉河部分水量分流用来发电。但是,美加两国签署了一个条约来规定可以被分流的水量。条约规定,在旅游季节,白天流过瀑布的水量不少于2800立方米/秒。其余时候,水量可降至1400立方米/秒。
曾经有人认为旅游业与工业的快速发展会毁掉尼亚加拉瀑布周边地区的美景。1885年,纽约州政府获得了美国瀑布周围地区的使用权,随后,该政府便创建了尼亚加拉瀑布公园,其陆地面积为430英亩(174公顷)。1886年,加拿大在马蹄瀑布附近建立了占地196英亩(79公顷)的维多利亚女王公园。自19世纪80年代起,尼亚加拉瀑布周边越来越多的地区被辟为公园,在加拿大境内尤为如此。
长期以来,岩崩不断地改变着尼亚加拉瀑布的形象。1931年,大约75000吨的岩石从美国瀑布崩落。几年之后,约27000吨的岩石从马蹄瀑布的上缘飞崩而下。1954年,又有大约
167,800吨的岩石从美国瀑布及其附近的观景台隆隆滚下。
1969年,为了暂时阻止美国瀑布上游的水流,美国陆军部一批工程师设计修建了一座大坝。来自美国与加拿大两国的专家对本地区岩石的突出部位进行了研究,以期确定如何防止岩石进一步被侵蚀。然而,专家们最终认定,阻止岩石侵蚀的成本太高。他们继而建议除了采取一些小的措施来保护公众安全以外,人们最好不要轻举妄动。

第四篇        Passage 4

    Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses were discovered accidentally in March 1974 when the local farmers were digging a well in the fields. Archeologists believe that the terra-cotta warriors and horses were from the Qin Dynasty. After many explorations and test excavation, three pits have been discovered, covering an area of 22,780 square meters.
   This discovery created a world sensation. In order to protect these rare historical relics, in 1975, the State Council granted permission to construct a 16,300-square-meter museum over the site of Pit No 1. The museum was officially open to the public on the nation’s National Day, October 1, 1979. Later, exhibition halls housing Pit No. 3, No. 2 and the Bronze Chariots and Horses were built and open to the public in succession. The Museum and the Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang have been listed as one of the country’s ten great historical sites and designated by the UNESCO as a World Culture Heritage Site.
Pit No.1 is rectangular in shape. It is 230 meters from east to west, 62 meters from north to south, 5 meters deep, and covers an area of 16,620 square meters. Warriors in this pit are arranged in a practical battle array. In the long corridor at the east end of the pit stand three rows of terra-cotta warriors, 70 in each, 210 in all. Armed with bows and arrows, the soldiers are wearing battle tunics and puttees, and facing east. They are regarded as the vanguard of the battle formation. These are followed by 38 columns of troops, consisting of infantrymen and charioteers that are arranged in 11 corridors separated by 10 earth-rammed walls. The warriors all wear armors and carry long-shaft weapons. They make up the main body of the battle formation. Furthermore, at the north, south, and west end, there is one row of terra-cotta warriors respectively, all facing outward. They are the flanks and rear guards of the entire battle formation. From the 960 square meters testing trenches, some 500 warriors, 4 chariots, and 24 drafting horses have been unearthed. According to the density, 6,000 pieces in all can be excavated from Pit No.1.
Pit No.2 is “L”- shaped, covering an area of 6,000 square meters. It is actually a mixed battle formation consisting of military forces in four separate arrays. The first array is composed of 334 archers, the second of 64 chariots with three warriors on each. The third array includes 19 chariots and 100 warriors. The fourth array consists of 6 chariots, 124 cavalrymen and saddled horses. Together, the four arrays constitute a large battle formation, closely connected with one another. At the same time, each of the four arrays is an independent division, flexible and capable of both attacking and defending. It is estimated that altogether 1,500 pieces are expected to be excavated from Pit No.2.
Pit No.3 is “U”-shaped, taking up 520 square meters with only 4 terra-cotta horses, one chariot and 68 armored warriors discovered. Warriors here stand in two rows, opposite to each other along the wall. They carry a kind of long weapon, which has no blades and are believed to be used by the guards of honor. Remains of animal bones and deer horns probably used for sacrificial offerings and war praying are found in this pit. So archeologists believe it is the headquarters of the underground army.
The three pits are arranged in a triangle and form an enormous battle array, consisting of 8,000 warriors and horses. Vast and powerful, they give us a grand view of a mighty army in full battle array. They are the garrison army molded to guard Emperor Qin Shihuang tomb.
All the pottery figures were modeled life-size and were originally all color-painted. The warriors in the formation are arranged in accordance with their ranks-----generals, officers and soldiers, and their functions-----foot soldiers, charioteers and cavalrymen. The warriors vary from one another in feature and facial expressions, looking lifelike and vivid. They reveal the high artistic skill and national style of the group sculpture of ancient China.
Together with the warriors and horses are thousands of bronze weapons, including broad knives, swords, spears, dagger-axes, halberds, crossbows, arrows and arrowheads. The most eye-catching among the weapons is a bronze sword. Though buried under ground for over two thousand years, the sword is rustproof, still bright and sharp, and it can cut through 20 sheets of paper piled together. Technical examination reveals that the sword has been cast of an alloy of copper and tin. It also contains more than ten other rare metals. The surface was coated with chromium that has prevented corrosion and rust. This shows that 2,000 years ago China’s technique of casting and metallurgy reached an amazingly high level.
In December 1980, archeologists discovered two teams of color-painted bronze chariots 20 meters to the west of Qin Shihuang’s mausoleum. This has added more splendors to the museum. They are listed as No.1 and No. 2 chariot respectively according to the order of their discovery. Both chariots are single-shaft and drafted by four horses. No.1 chariot was named High Chariot. The charioteers and the passengers all stood in it. No.2 was named Security Chariot, which has two cabins; the front compartment is for the charioteer and the rear one is for the emperor. The rear compartment has a window on both sides as well as in the front and a door at the back. It is said that the chariots are used to hold the emperor’s soul for inspection. The chariots and horses are half life-size, consisting of more than 3,400 component parts and 1,720 pieces of gold and silver decorations and ornaments. They are luxurious and graceful. Test studies have revealed that the making of the bronze chariots and horses involve such techniques as casting, welding, riveting, embedding, and chiseling.
The bronze chariots and horses were manufactured with high technology and modeled vividly. They are the earliest and most exquisite bronze treasures made in Chinese history and the largest bronze ware ever discovered in the history of world archaeology. They prove that the technique of chariot manufacture during the Qin period was undoubtedly advanced.

第五篇        Passage 5

Jiuzhaigou lies in Nanping County, Arba Tibetan Autonomous Region of Sichuan Province, covering a land of natural beauty 35 kilometers long. This land is characterized with verdant and lush forests, perennially snow-topped mountain peaks, stretches of serene lakes, and various rare and precious birds and animals. On entering the resort, you will find yourself strolling in a heaven of peace, leaving behind all troubles and vexations.
Jiuzhaigou is a world of water, the clearest in the world. Water brings Jiuzhaigou its most enchanting views; water is the soul of Jiuzhaigou. Whether you are met with serene lakes or plunging waterfalls, you will enjoy yourself so much among the charming sights that you are reluctant to leave.
The local people call these lakes “haizi”(meaning “little sea”). Jiuzhaigou has 108 “haizi” of varying sizes and shapes, but of invariant limpidity to the bottom of the lakes. Some of the lakes are hidden in the valleys, and others inlay the forests. On sunny days, various colors of algae and sediments at the bottom of the lakes project colorful light rings in the sunshine. The lakes, thus, have acquired another name “Wuhua Sea” (meaning “multicolored sea”) from the locals.
A romantic local legend goes that a long time ago, there lived a beautiful and kind-hearted goddess in the east mountain of Jiuzhaigou and an industrious and chivalrous god in the west. As time went by, they fell in love. One day the god presented the goddess a big and shiny divine mirror as a token of love. The goddess reached out for it, but she was so excited and nervous that the mirror slipped from her trembling hands and dropped to 108 pieces. They turned out to be 108 winkling and glittering crystal lakes of different sizes, covering the land of Jiuzhaigou.
Jiuzhaigou is also the habitat of dozens of rare animals such as giant panda, lesser panda, golden monkey, antelope, etc. Therefore, Jiuzhaigou is not only a charming place of natural beauty, but also a desire place for research into natural ecology, biological evolution, paleogeography and paleoclimatology. In addition, the Folk Art Center here boasts of some most excellent singers and dancers of the Tibetan and Qiang nationalities, including the all-round singer who is also the music composer and songwriter and the few players of the ancient music instruments of the Qiang nationality. You can enjoy their performances as well as the fascinating open fire party of the Tibetan and Qiang nationalities.  

第六篇        Passage 6

Situated in central Shandong Province, Mount Tai stretches over 200 kilometers, pushing out its spurs into Tai’an, Licheng and Changqing. Its main peak, overlooking Tai’an city from the south rises 1545 meters above sea level. Because it lies in east China, where the sun rises, it is crowned as the most famous one of China’s Five Holy Mountains. Since ancient times, most emperors came to worship Heaven and Earth here when they ascended the throne. It is said that during the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties (2100-221BC), a total of 72 monarchs journeyed to Mount Tai for prayers. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty and Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty held the grandest ceremony there.
There are five tourist spots and two main routes up the mountain-----eastern and western. Both routes converge at Zhongtianmen, Halfway Gate to Heaven, which leads to the summit. The entire journey covers 9 kilometer and 6,566 winding stone steps. To get to the summit from by the eastern route, climbers have to scale a steep flight of Eighteen Mountain Bends (Shibapan), the most precipitous section.  However, most climbers prefer going up by this route, since it is said this used to be the one taken by royalty and hence has more cultural sites and beautiful sceneries. While still many climbers ascend through the western route due to the easy scaling.
The bends end at Nantianmen, South Gate to Heaven, only one kilometer away from the top, and a smooth climbing ahead to the summit. At the top of Mount Tai, there is a temple dedicated to Princess of the Azure Clouds, Bixia, and a Taoist deity.
Perched on the highest point of the mountain is Tianzhu Peak, Post to Heaven, also called the Jade Emperor Summit (Yuhuangding) owing to the Jade Emperor Palace. A Wordless Tablet stands outside the gate. The story goes that Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty set up the rock 2,100 years ago, but was dissatisfied with the words his scribes produced. Therefore, he was determined to leave it to the viewers’ imagination.
Up to the summit of Mount Tai, climbers can enjoy the four grand sceneries: the Morning Sun Rising in the east, the Evening Sun Setting in the west, the Golden-belt of the Yellow River and the Jade Plate in the Sea of Clouds. The Sun Watching Peak east of the Jade Emperor Summit is an advantageous point to appreciate the sunrise.
Mount Tai is a perfect example of the kind of mountain resort that embodies natural scenery and cultural heritage, boasting numerous exotic stones, pouring waterfalls, age-old pine trees, stone bridges, ancient pagodas, temples, pavilions and halls. And in particular, tourists will invariantly marvel at the vast number of stone inscriptions left by famous ancient writers, scholars, and calligraphers of various dynasties.
    Each season here has its beauty: bright flowers in full bloom covering the green slopes in spring, spectacular summer thunderstorms which are rarely seen elsewhere, blue rivers running across the mountains overlaid with red maple leaves in fall, and snow-topped mountains and frosted pine trees in winter that stage a quiet grandeur spectacle of particular interest. On a sunny day one can see the peaks rising one upon the other. On a cloudy day, the horizon disappears into a sea of clouds. Mount Tai is most famous for its spectacular sunrise and sunset. Its landscape and numerous historical sites have inspired many great classics of ancient writers and calligraphers. It has long been the preferred gathering place of artists and poets.
The modern world has also recognized the tourist and cultural values of Mount Tai. Early in 1985, Mount Tai was listed as World Natural and Cultural Heritage Site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

2007-12-08 17:06:08 来自青青岛社区
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第七单元     Unit 7
人物访谈     Interview


1. 阅读材料   Reading Materials
      
第一篇  Passage 1

President Bush Answers Students’ Questions At Qinghua

(President W. Bush made a speech at Qinghua University during his visit in China. After the speech he answered the questions asked by the students. The following are some of the questions and answers.)              
Q:  Mr. President, yesterday I watched the press conference made by you and president Jiang Zemin. At the conference, you didn’t clearly answer a question, which is a concern by almost everybody. It’s why the TMD system will cover Taiwan. And what’s more, whenever you talk about the Taiwan issue, you always use a phrase just like, peaceful settlement. You never use the phrase, peaceful reunification. What’s the difference and why?
A:  Thank you, very good question. First of all, I want to compliment you on your English. Very good. The first thing that is important on the Taiwan issue is that my government hopes there is a peaceful, as I said, dialogue, that there is a settlement to this issue. But it must be done in a peaceful way. That’s why I keep emphasizing peaceful. And, by the way, “peaceful” is a word intended for both parties, that neither party should provoke that.  
I also, in your question about missile defenses, have made it clear that our nation will develop defenses to help our friends, our allies, and others around the world protect ourselves from rogue nations that are trying to develop weapons of mass destruction. To me, that’s essential for peace in the world. We have yet to develop a system, and therefore, that’s exactly what I said yesterday. And it’s the truth. But we are in the process of seeing if we can’t develop a system. And I think it will bring more stability to the world than less.
And let me just say one general comment that’s very important for you to know. And it’s also important for the people of my country to know-----that my administration is committed to peacefully resolving issues around the world. We want the issues resolved in a peaceful manner.
And we’ve got a lot of issues that we deal with. We are dealing in the Middle East. And if you follow the news, it’s a very dangerous period of time there. We are working hard to bring a peaceful resolution there. We are working hard to bring a peaceful resolution to Kashmir, which is important for China. And I recently went to Korea and I made it very clear that we want to resolve the issues on the Korean Peninsula in a peaceful way.
Another question, please?
Q:  I’ll repeat my question in English.
A:  Thank you.
Q:  It’s a pity you still haven’t given us a clear question about whether you always use the peaceful settlement. You’ve never said “peaceful reunification”. It’s a pity.
A:  We’re back on Taiwan again-----go ahead.
Q:  This is a question our Chinese people are extremely concerned about.
A:  Yes, I know.
Q:  Three days ago, during your speech in the Japanese Parliament, you said, the United States will still remember its commitment to Taiwan.
A:  Right.
Q:  But my question is, does the U.S. still remember its commitment to 1.3 billion Chinese people? Abiding by the three Joint Communiqués and three notes. Thank you.
A:  Thank you very much. As I said, this seems to be a topic on people’s mind, obviously. I can’t say it any more clearly, that I’m anxious that there be a peaceful resolution that’s going to require both parties to come to a solution. And that’s what I mean by peaceful dialogue. And I hope it happens in my lifetime and I hope it happens in yours. It will be an important milestone. And, secondly, when my country makes an agreement, we stick with it. And there is an act called the Taiwan Relations Act, and I honor that act, which says we will help Taiwan defend herself if provoked. But we’ve also sent the same message that there should be no provocation by either party for a peaceful dialogue.
Q:  Thank you, Mr. Bush. Thank you, Mr. President, for giving me the last chance to ask you a question. I have read your autobiography, and in it you wrote about some social problem in the U.S. today, just like the violence in campus and juvenile delinquency, and such as the children in poverty. And we know-----a former schoolmate of our university, Tsinghua, and he studied in USA and was killed last year. And I feel so sad. And I know this kind of crime has become more and more serious in today U.S. As the president, do you have any good plan to improve the human rights today in the U.S.? Thank you.
A:  Sure, well, first of all, I’m proud to report that violent crime actually is going down. But any crime is too much crime. I mean anytime somebody is violent towards their neighbor, it is too much violence. And there is no question, we’ve got people living in poverty. But as I mentioned, our government is very generous in the amounts of money we spend trying to help people help themselves. When we all campaigned for office, one of the big debates is how best to help people help themselves.
Foreign policy is an important part of our campaigns, of course-----at least for President. But the American voter really is more focused on domestic politics, what’s happening at home, as you can imagine. If the economy is soft, like ours is now, they want to know what’s going to happen-----what are you doing about the economy? If the economy is good, then they don’t talk much about the economy.
But always we talk about two key issues to address your problem. One is welfare; how do we structure a welfare system that helps people in need, and in my judgment, should not make them dependent upon their government. And the other big issue is education. It’s always not only an important part of campaigns, but it’s an important part of being-----once you are in office.
When I was the governor of Texas, I used to always say, an educated child is one less likely to commit a crime. As a governor, and now as President, I have spent a lot of time working with members of both political parties to develop an education plan that starts making sure children learn before they just get shuffled through the system.
One of the saddest facts about my country is that there are a significant number of fourth grade students who can’t read at grade level. Imagine a child who can’t read in the fourth grade is a child that is not going to be able to read in the eighth grade. And if a child can’t read in the eighth grade, it’s likely that child is going to be able to read sufficiently when they get out of high school, and therefore won’t be able to go to college. It’s a shame in America that that’s the case.
So as part of an education bill I managed to get through Congress last year, we’ve got a significant reading initiative, where we’ll work with the states and the local jurisdictions to focus on an education program that emphasizes reading. This I hope to work with my wife and others on an early childhood development program, so the youngsters get the building blocks to learn how to read.
I’m actually working my way to your question, I promise you, because education is the best anti-crime program. It’s important to enforce law. It’s important to hold people accountable for their actions. It’s important to have consistent policy that says if you harm somebody, there will be a punishment for that harm. But in the best interests for my country, the long-term solution is to make sure the education system works for everybody. And when that happens, there will be a more hopeful future for people, and there will be less poverty, less hopelessness, and less crime.
Thank you for letting me come. God bless you all.

课文词语  Words and Expressions from the Text
TMD system                           战区导弹防御系统
missile defenses                        导弹防御                           
peaceful settlement                      和平解决
peaceful reunification                    和平统一
be committed to                         致力于   
commitment to Taiwan                   对台湾做出的承诺
three Joint Communiqués                 三个联合公报
juvenile delinquency                     少年犯罪
campaign for office                      (这里指) 总统竞选
before they just get shuffled               在他们开始学步之前
get the building blocks to do …            掌握做事之基础     
                                 
第二篇 Passage 2

Premier Zhu Answers Questions By the Press

(The following are some of the questions and answers by the press and Premier Zhu Rongji at the Fifth Session of the Ninth NPC)   
Q:   Despite the sluggish world economy, China has set its economic growth forecast for this year at 7 percent. Is this growth rate achievable? And what major measures will be taken?
A:   It is true that we have set our forecast of economic growth rate at 7 percent. This figure was arrived at after we gave careful consideration to all the factors, including the slow-down in world economic growth. So 7 percent is within reach. As for the specific measures we are going to adopt to achieve this growth rate, I have already outlined them in the Government Work Report. Judging from our economic performance in the first quarter of this year, the result is actually better than I expected. According to forecast of the State Statistical Bureau, the GDP of the first quarter of this year will grow by 7.5 percent over the same period last year. This gives me much confidence that we will be able to achieve the 7 percent growth rate.
Q:   I have two questions. One is related to the Japan-China relationship. This year marks the 30th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations between the two countries. We can expect to see frequent high-level exchanges between the leaders of the two countries. According to my information, through diplomatic channels, the Chinese side expressed the hope that the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Japan can come to China for a visit. My question is, will their visit facilitate the growth of bilateral ties and will the Chinese people welcome them? The second question is related to China’s internal matters. Now in Chinese society, there has been the problem of widening gap between high-income and low-income people. Some experts have called for the improvement of the situation and think it necessary to cultivate and expand the so-called “middle class”. Do you agree to such a view? If yes, what measures are you going to adopt?
A:   This year marks the 30th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations between China and Japan. The year before last, the Chinese and Japanese sides reached the agreement that this year will be the Year of China-Japan Friendship and a series of events will be organized to celebrate the occasion and to strengthen contact and exchanges between the two sides. In China we will have the Year of Japanese Culture and in Japan, the Year of Chinese Culture. As for the invitation to the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Japan, we have made our wishes known to the Japanese side a long time ago. I am confident that once they are in China, the Chinese people will warmly welcome them.                                                                                                                        
Concerning your second question that referred to the widening gap between the rich and the poor, I think that this problem does exist. You may well still remember that Mr. Deng Xiaoping used to say that we should allow some people to get rich first, which means that inevitably some people are yet to get rich. So within a certain historical period of time, the widening of the gap between the rich and the poor seems unavoidable.
However, while we implement the policy to enable some people get rich first, we always adopt policies to enable low-income groups. How to increase the income of farmers is a subject to which I devoted a considerable amount of my time when I delivered the Government Work Report and it has been regarded as the central task of this government. We have also attached great importance to the development of the social security system, which will take care of laid-off workers, the unemployed and the retirees. These are the priorities of our work. Apart from budgetary allocations, the most important means to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor is the taxation policy, which means to help the groups who are yet to get rich through our taxation policy. I believe that this problem will be solved after a certain period of time.
Q:   Right now, discussions are underway between Hong Kong and the Chinese mainland on facilitating closer economic and trade ties between the two sides having arrangements similar to a free trade area. My question is, what measures will the Central Government adopt to consolidate Hong Kong’s position as the financial center in Asia.
A:   Since the establishment of Hong Kong SAR government, Hong Kong has encountered temporary economic difficulties due to the impact of the Asian Financial Crisis. Nevertheless, I always believe that Hong Kong still has incomparable advantages. Hong Kong’s GDP is about the same size as that of Guangdong Province. No major city in the Chinese mainland can surpass Hong Kong in the near term. I believe Hong Kong will be able to overcome its temporary economic difficulties. We have every confidence in that.
As for how the central government will help and cooperate with HK SAR government, right now, officials from the Central Government and HK SAR government are having close consultations. Anything that will bring tangible benefits to Hong Kong, as long as it’s feasible, the Central Government will give it full support. I am confident that Hong Kong will surely maintain its status as a financial center in Asia. With China’s accession to the WTO, Hong Kong is blessed with even more opportunity.

课文词语  Words and Expressions from the Text
SAR government                       特别行政区政府
sluggish world economy                 低迷的世界经济
economic growth forecast                经济增长的预测目标
through diplomatic channels              通过外交渠道
implement a policy                     执行政策
laid-off workers                       下岗职工
budgetary allocations                   财政预算分配
the priorities of our work                工作之重点
bring tangible benefits to…              给……带来实惠

II. 口译实践Interpretation Practice

听译下列课文 Listen to the Following Passages and Interpret them:
英汉交替 Interpretation from English into Chinese or Vice Versa

第一篇Passage 1

相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
见证人                              witness
义和团战争                          the Boxer war
水缸                                water vat
八国联军                            Allied Forces
刮去水缸表面的镏金                  strip away the gold plating on the vats
掀开我们新的关系史上新的一页        turn a new leaf in our new history
联合国安理会常任理事国              permanent members of UN Security Council  
groundless                           无根据的,无理由的
wield influence                       发挥最大作用
conviction                           坚定的信念
huge sense of                         强烈的印象
be engaged in drug smuggling           从事毒品走私
get the right type of conviction           树立正确的信念

     (中央电视台记者采访英国首相布莱尔,一下是采访的部分内容。)
问:  首相先生,您看那边有很多人,我想他们已经知道今天这里有一位尊贵的客人来到了。故宫给您留下什么印象?
A:   This is a piece of extraordinary history. In fact, I actually came here ten years ago for my very first visit to China. I’ve just noticed so many changes in China in the ten years I’ve been away. This is just marvelous.
问: 这么说,这是您第二次来了。
A:   It’s my second time that I’ve been here in China.
问: 首相先生,说到故宫,许多中国人把故宫看成是中国近代史的见证人。当然,这段历史中也包含了中英两国的关系,您知道在义和团战争期间,我们两国之间有些令人不快的回忆。就在这道大门之内,在这儿数百米距离以内,有几十口非常大的水缸。在那次战争中,八国联军的士兵到过这里,并把这些缸表面上的镏金给刮走了,当然那是一段过去的历史了。正如您所说的,随着香港的回归,我们已经卸掉了历史的包袱,正在期待两国关系进入一个崭新的时期。那么,今天您作为一个客人来到这里,同时也作为英国政府的领导人来到这里,你将如何掀开我们新的关系史上新的一页?
A:   I think there is a new relationship between Britain and China today. I mean you’re right in saying in history we’ve had some times of a trouble past but on the other hand the historical links are very strong and what we are trying to do is to renew them for today. And the handover of Hong Kong is obviously a very important moment for Britain and for China. And it’s gone well; it’s gone far better than people expected. I think that’s all to the good really. As to the situation in Hong Kong, there were a lot of concerns expressed about it before the handover took place. I think these concerns have largely proved to be groundless. But it’s been a success story from that point of view. So that is good also for Britain and China. There are many common interests in how we open up trade with one another, in how we ensure that China takes its place in the world as a major power, able to wield influence for good.
问:  您刚刚提到了联合国,中国和英国都是世界上很有影响的国家,我们两国都是联合国安理会常任理事国。您认为我们两国如何能促进在国际事务中的合作?比如说在对付贩毒方面?
A:   I think the closer we work together, the better will be our work on these issues. What we’re learning in the world today is the big challenges that we face. Whether it’s international crime or drugs or it’s the global economic crisis, or it’s political instability in various parts of the world, they can only be tackled together. They can only be tackled by countries recognizing they’ve got a common interest in trying to find the way through the difficulties and challenges that they face. So, for example, on the issue of international crime and drugs, we are now working with China, with other countries, to try and get the right type of conviction together, which will allow us to chase after those people who are engaged in drug smuggling. Now, China’s role in that I think is tremendously important. And again, I think, there is huge sense of China taking its place, rightful place really in the world debating these issues.

2007-12-08 17:07:13 来自青青岛社区
回复:【┳⑦号小妖┳】

第二篇 Passage 2

相关词语 Related Words and Expressions
make one’s day                      使某人的一天生色; 使某人非常高兴
make a difference                    有关系;起(重要)作用
be bogged down                     陷入泥潭;受阻;使不能前进
pitfalls                             挫折   
watershed                          分水岭;转折点;重要关头
tall poppy                          支高薪的人;出类拔萃的人
tall poppy syndrome                 “精英”综合症
People who are crisp and get on with it   干脆利落, 说干就干的人
out-source                          外部协作, 内部配置辈出
belly up                           (肚子朝天);死去;垮掉;完蛋
take the fat out (of)                   简化不必要的环节
kick in                             初见势头
an avid reader                       读书迷

    (The following is an interview with the managing director of Infolink, Larry Hill)
Q:   What makes your day at work?
A:   Achieving things. Especially achievements that is good for the customer. You can have all the strategy in the world, but at the end of the day you have to be able to execute. At the moment we are working on a piece of hardware that will revolutionize a client’s business―we are always working on things that will have an actual, tangible impact on a client’s operations.
Q:  When did you become a manager?
A:  I’ve been in this industry for 30 years. I was designing, writing and producing programs at first, and then I was sent to Germany to work on a “secret project” in a team with one other person. When he was fired I was suddenly made a manager of the project and had a team of Germans under me, and I didn’t speak German! That was in 1980. I’ve been in management since then.
Q:  What is the most important lesson you learned on your way up?
A:  Rule number one: people make the difference. People count and people make the difference. It’s a really simple and essential thing that you choose the right people. I like to choose people who are cleverer than me. I have very dedicated, clever people working for me.
The second most important lesson is that everything is about selling what you have got, not about having a strategy. You have to focus on sales. I think some big companies in particular become bogged down in the process and become less interested in the outcome, which is not good for business.
Q:  How have you dealt with pitfalls in your career?
A:  Change something and move on. When I was a young man I would hitchhike. While others stood and waited for cars, I would walk because there might be a corner around which you were more likely to be picked up. That is what I mean about change something and move on. Tomorrow you’ll always have different choices. Luck also plays a part. Watershed events happen and can change your life dramatically―time and chance have a part to play in everything.
Q:  If you were starting over, what would you be?   
A:  If I could not be an astronaut, I would do exactly what I did. I feel very lucky. For 30 years I have traveled and worked around the world, made reasonable money and met interesting people. I would even like my son to do this job, because I find it really extends your mind. Also in the last 30 years things have changed so much.
There are some propeller heads that sit in the corner and grunt; but as managers we have to drive them to give their very best. There are a lot of people who try to mystify IT (Information Technology) and I think something I do is to simplify it for people.
Q:  What annoys you most?
A:  Indecision and the “tall poppy” syndrome―cutting someone down because they are successful. In some countries, the population is quick to idolize sports heroes but doesn’t pay business people enough compliments. Having said that, I’m not a person who is easily annoyed, but I am extremely impatient, and I find often in the process of working with a company that they will delay and delay and delay making an important decision. They sometimes spend more money investigating the solution than buying it from you. I’ve experienced situations where consultants consume budgets before any final decision is reached. I prefer people who are crisp and get on with it.
Q:  Which management wisdom is overrated?
A:  We’ve been through it all―out-source, in-source, re-engineer, restructure. We’ve made it too complicated. I think you just have to ask, “what are the most important things in the business and what do we need to do?” My concern is that business can be made overcomplicated-----a certain amount of “information pollution” goes on.
Q:  What has been your best moment in business?
A:  I have not had that moment yet. I have had good successes but I’m forever optimistic that the best moments are yet come.
Q:  What will be the big business issues the next decade?
A:  I think it will be the issue of technology, creating sustainable business advantage. Many of the dotcoms went belly up because of lousy business models, but for business-to-business communication, technology is a fantastic tool. About 150 years age the industrial revolution took all the fat out of production processes. Now the information revolution, which is only just kicking in, is taking the fat out of the administration process that supports manufacturing. The use of technology to create sustainable business advantages is the biggest revolution in business so far.
Q:  How do you relax?
A:  I do like to fly the light one-man home-made aircraft called micro lights―you have to focus when you fly to avoid being hurt―you can’t be thinking about work. I’m also an avid reader. And to really relax, I go home. My wife is a gem who has created a great environment at home.

第三篇        Passage 3

相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
美国有线新闻网                            CNN ( the U.S. Cable News Network)
主持人                                    anchor
这是好兆头                                This bodes well
遏制                                      containment
软遏制                                    soft containment
进入新阶段                                enter into a new phase
反华情绪                                  anti-China sentiment in the U. S.
建设性战略伙伴关系                        a constructive strategic partnership
The United States and China remaining engaged   美中两国保持接触(政策)

(朱F基总理访美期间接受了美国有线新闻网主持人伍德拉夫的专访,以下选自此次专访。)
W:   You, at one point in the last few days, I believe to members of Congress, described President Clinton as lacking courage, suggesting that he gave in to political concerns in the United States. Is that your views of the President? Is he weaker, politically, than you expected?
朱:  我认为这不是一个勇气问题,而是对机遇的判断问题。这表明了他对美国国内政治形势的判断。我认为他应在听取国会和民众意见的基础上,做出决定。我相信,他会做出正确的决策。
根据我的访美日程,我已经访问了纽约等五个城市。明天我要去波士顿。我有幸与美国大批人士进行了接触,包括国会议员、商界、金融界和新闻界人士。我认为,这预示着中美关系是继续健康向前发展的。我发现,所有我们接触到的美国人都会支持中国加入世贸组织。
今天下午两点,克林顿总统打电话给我,我把我的这种感受告诉了他。他说他也有同感。因此,我想要不了多久我们就可以达成协议了。
W:  President Clinton has talked about, in this regard, the importance of the United States and China remaining engaged. Do you agree that it’s important for the two countries to remain engaged?
朱:  你们把这叫“保持接触”政策。我们叫“中美友好合作关系”。我认为发展中美合作友好关系是美国两党――共和党和民主党的一贯政策。从尼克松总统打开中美关系的大门以来,两党一直坚持这个政策。尼克松总统毕竟是共和党人。接着,在民主党的卡特总统执政期间,两国正式建立了外交关系;共和党的里根和布什进一步促进了中美友好合作关系的发展;民主党的克林顿总统又与江泽民主席共同宣布,两国之间建立建设性的战略伙伴关系。这一系列事实说明,这个政策是两党的共识。现在我感到两国关系进入了一个新的全面稳定发展阶段。发展中美友好合作关系不仅有利于中美两国人民,而且有利于世界人民。从中方来说,中国三代领导人――毛泽东主席,周恩来总理,邓小平先生,江泽民主席,他们都始终不渝地维护和发展中美两国关系。因此,我认为你说的“接触政策”才是正确的发展方向。而所谓的“遏制”或者有些人说的“软遏制”不是正确的方向。
W:   And finally, Premier Zhu, let me ask you, what would be your message to people around the world to perhaps―to help them understand about China something perhaps that they don't understand now? What would you have people know or understand about your country―people in the United States, people in Europe, Africa, the rest of the world that perhaps they don’t know?
朱:  我认为在目前的反华情绪中,那些嗓门最高的是那些最缺乏对中国了解的人。而且常常是那些从没去过中国的人喊的最响。因此,促进两国关系进一步发展的最好途径是加强人员交流,使人们更多的互访,更好的互相沟通。在我访美国期间,有机会接触美国各行各业人士,包括很多美国普通民众。他们都对中国表达了友好的感情。对一些问题,包括有些议员提出的人权问题和西藏问题,他们听了我在这些问题上的观点以后,都表示他们能够理解我们的做法。因此,如果我们能够进一步促进两国人民之间的互相了解,我们的关系一定会得到进一步的改善。

第四篇        Passage 4
相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
承包                                      rent
敬老院                                    an old people’s home
圆桌座谈                                  a roundtable discussion
最基层卫生所                              the lowest level clinic
figure out an honorable way to…               找出……的最好办法
people live at what we call the grass-roots level    我们称之为平民百姓这一阶层的人们
It leads to strains on the environment            这给环境带来压力

(美国总统克林顿和夫人访问西安时曾和下和村村民交谈。以下是交谈的部分内容。)
THE PRESIDENT:  Let me begin by thanking all of you for spending a little time with my wife and me today, and by thanking everyone in Xiahe for making us feel so welcomed.
I’m sorry that I had to take a little time to answer some questions from our news media, but, as you know, there’s 12 hours time difference and so, they’re running out of time to file their stories, and thank you for your patience.
So we really have no set program today. I would like to just hear from each of you about what you are doing and how you personally have seen things change in China the last few years.
Who would like to go first?
村医: 我是下和村人。我在本村卫生所工作,这是中国最基层的卫生所。我们按照政府的规定办事。我们想――我们有一项工作就是预防村里的常见病并向上级政府报告我们的工作情况。基层卫生所的另一项职责就是治疗村里的常见病。我暂时说到这里。
MRS. CLINTON:  Doctor, have you noticed improvements in the health of the people here in the countryside during your time as a doctor?
村医: 农村人的健康状况有了很大改善,特别是现在我们的钱更多了,我们很少参加体力劳动。
村民(女厂长): 我叫杨丽华。是秦俑工艺厂经理――我拥有一个小工厂,在工厂我是经理。我还创办了敬老院。我只是个农村妇女,但自从改革开放以来,我承包了一个工厂和一个敬老院,基本上用工厂挣来的钱资助敬老院。
中国人现在富有了,但是我们不能忘记老人。在20世纪我们中国的老人多起来了。我们真应该为他们多做点事情。这是我想要做的,也是我毕生奋斗的目标。
MRS.CLINTON: May I ask, how did you start your factory? Where did you get the funds to start the factory and get the equipment and the materials you needed?
村民(女厂长): 我用自己的钱, 并向政府贷一部分款。实际上, 我们几个人在一起合作, 所以我也向合伙人筹集一部分资金。
THE PRESIDENT:  This is going to be a big issue in the future for every country. In our country, the fastest growing group of Americans is people over 85. There are still not many of them, but they’re growing fast. And every society will have to figure out an honorable way to take care of such people. So I appreciate the work you’re doing.
村民:  我叫杨东义,是下和村人。我是这个村长大的。起初我种地,现在承包了一个小公司。1949年解放以来,我亲身经历了村里发生的三大变化。我所经历的第一个变化是村里解放后的生活比解放前好了。1982年改革开放以来,我们的生活比解放前更提高了。自1992年,我们的生活又有了很大改善。1989年以前村里的人均收入约为100元多一点。1992年,村里的人均收入达1000多元,而现在村里的人均收入可达到3000多元。
1982年以前,我全家每年只有约100元的收入。现在我家有三口人,我、我妻子和我女儿,年收入达3万多元。我想告诉总统阁下的是我们村和我们家及整个国家发生的变化。发生在我个人身上的变化与中国某些人比还是比较小的。我们这地方和西安,与中国的沿海城市相比,仍然有点落后。当然和美国比,我们村就更落后了,但我们会努力工作的。
THE PRESIDENT:  Let me say, first of all, that it’s very impressive how much economic progress has been made in such a short time.
What specific change do you think has been most important in helping you and your family to earn much more money through your hard work?
村民: 最重要的事情是我国现在有了好的政策。过去,无论你有多大本事,你只能做人家叫你做的事情。但是,改革开放以后,每个人都有显示自己才能和努力工作的广阔天地。现在产量提高如此之快的原因是人人都能做他们擅长做的事情。有的人开始做生意;有的人留在家里种地;有的人开办自己的公司;他们做的都是他们擅长的。他们还更加注意学习新技术,所以他们的工作能力极大地提高了。
另外,他们现在还向国外学习,借用并学习国外的先进技术,并把这些技术用于自己的生产。这就是你今天所看到的变化的主要原因。
村民: 我叫谢利民。我以及像我这样的人从改革开放中获益最多。我在空军部队服役了15年,在政府部门工作了8年。1992年我开了家小餐馆,当时只有80个餐位,现在已扩大到500个餐位。
我的餐馆在西安是属于最好中的一个,而且很有影响。我真诚邀请你们两位光临我的餐馆用餐。如果你们这次没机会的话,即使你从总统职位上卸任后也欢迎你再次光临。
THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you.
村民: 我还想问问你最喜欢的中国菜是什么?
THE PRESIDENT:  Well, now I understand how you fill a restaurant with 500 seats every night. (Laughter).
MRS. CLINTON:  I would wonder whether any of you might have any questions for us, because one of the reasons that my husband made this trip is so that the Chinese people and the American people can learn more about each other and about our lives.
村民: 我想问总统,你为什么和我们普通的中国人举行这个圆桌座谈呢?
THE PRESIDENT:  For two reasons. First of all, I think it’s important that people who are in positions like mine, in the United States and in China, in every country, understand how people live at what we call the grass-roots level, and understand how the policies we make affect the lives that people live, because that’s actually the purpose of leadership―to try to make a positive difference in the lives of ordinary citizens.
And second, because the American people are very interested in learning more about Chinese people as the result of my trip. So, when we do this, there will be pictures and reports of this meeting in America so people just like you in America will have a feeling for what it’s like to own a restaurant or teach a school or be a business person or be a student or a doctor or run a home for older people. They will feel these things in a different way because of this event we’re doing here.
村民: 我相信一个注意人民生活实际的总统肯定是受人民拥护的总统。
THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you. We have to stop in a moment, but I’d like to ask the doctor one more question. What do you believe the biggest challenge is for improving the health care of the Chinese people now at the village level? What is the largest remaining challenge that would―any change that could be made that would improve health much more?
村医: 首先,按照我过去的经验,我认为最大的问题是改善环境卫生。预防也是很重要的。
THE PRESIDENT:  This is a very important point, which has been made―important for China and important for the United States. When a country grows economically, you use more energy and you have more activity, and it leads to strains on the environment, especially air pollution, which can really affect people’s health. So one of China’s big challenges, and a continuing challenge for America, is to grow the economy, but to clean up the environment at the same time. And we can do both, but we have to work at it, and we should work at it together.
村民(饭店经理): 我想补充一点意见。西安的商界人士都真想增进中美两国的贸易,他们想看到中国成为美国的第一大贸易伙伴,同时我自己也想多挣些美元。(笑声)
THE PRESIDENT: Well, I’ll work on that and I will also work on accepting your invitation to come to your restaurant when I am not in office anymore. This is very nice, you know. Most people in my position wonder if anyone will want us to eat with them when we’re not in office anymore. (Laughter)
Thank you all very much. Thank you. (Applause.) Good luck to you, thank you.

III. 参考译文 Reference Version

第一篇 Passage 1

Q:  Prime Minister, you see there are so many people over there. I guess they’ve already known who’s the guest, a very famous guest today to this city. How do you like this place?
答: 故宫代表的是一段辉煌的历史。事实上,十年前我第一次访问贵国时就已经来过这里。我注意到这十年来中国发生了如此巨大的变化,这简直是太了不起了。
Q:   So, this is your second time.
答:  我到中国来,这是第二次。
Q:  So, Mr. Prime Minister, talking about the Forbidden City, many Chinese people consider the Forbidden City a witness of the contemporary Chinese history. Of course, this also includes the history of our relations. You know during the Boxer war, we had some unpleasant memories between our two countries. Inside these few hundred meters, inside this gate, there were dozens of very huge water vats. During that war, soldiers from the Allied Forces came here and stripped away all the gold platings on them. That of course has become history. That’s something already in the past. As you have said, with the return of Hong Kong to China, we’ve already lifted the burden of history and we are expecting a brand-new era for relations between our two countries. So, today you came here as a guest and also as a leader of the British government. How do you plan to turn the new leaf in our new history?
答:  我认为中英之间如今已经有了一种新型关系。你提到在历史上我们两国关系曾有过一些麻烦的时候,你是对的;但另一方面,我们两国之间历史上的联系也很紧密,而我们现在所要做的就是把这种紧密关系重新恢复起来。香港回归对中英两国来说都是一个很重要的时刻,而且进展得很顺利,进展得超乎人们预料的顺利。我想这一切都很好。至于香港的情况,在回归之前,也有一些人曾表示忧虑。现在证明这些忧虑是没有根据的。香港的回归是很成功的,这对中英两国都很好。我们两国有着许多共同的利益,比如在相互开放贸易,协助中国在世界上发挥大国决定性的作用等方面。
Q:   You just mentioned the United Nations, and China and Britain are both countries with considerable influence in the world. We are both permanent members of the UN Security Council, so how do you think we can promote this cooperation in international affairs, like drug smuggling in the world?
答: 我认为在这些问题上,我们的合作越紧密,我们的工作就会做得越好。当今世界给我们最大的启示就是我们面临种种巨大的挑战。不论是国际性的犯罪、贩毒,还是全球性的经济危机,或者是世界各个地区的政局动荡,对于这些问题,我们只有联起手来一起去解决。这些问题只能由那些认识到它们有着共同的利益,尽力想办法面对困难、迎接挑战的国家予以解决。比如说对于全球性的犯罪和贩毒问题,我们正和中国在内的其他国家一起合作,尽力树立起一种正确的信念,以便我们能够追捕那些从事毒品走私的犯罪分子。我认为中国在这方面的作用是非常重要的。这也给人们一种强烈的印象,中国在全球讨论这类问题的过程中正发挥着它应有的作用。

第二篇 Passage 2

(对信息链公司总经理拉里q希尔的一次采访。)
问:  工作中什么事情令您感觉很高兴?
答:  做出成绩,特别是做出令客户满意的成绩。你可以做出种种规划设计,但最终还得能将它们付诸实践。目前,我们正在做一个硬件,它会引起客户业务的大变革―我们一般在做的都是会对客户业务起到实际影响的东西。
问: 您是何时当经理的?
答: 我干这行有30年了。起先我搞程序设计、程序编写,然后和另一个人一起被派往德国一个小组做一个“秘密项目”。他被“炒”后,我突然被任命为项目经理,手下有一组德国人供我指挥,而当时我还不会说德语!那是1980年的事了。那以后我就一直呆在经理圈                                                                                                                                                                                                。
问: 在您事业上升发展的过程中,您得到的最重要的经验是什么?
答: 首要的一条是:人起重要作用。人有着举足轻重的意义,人不同,出的活儿也不同。选择合适的人――这道理真是很简单而又至关重要。我喜欢挑选比我聪明的人。为我干活的人都很敬业,且脑瓜灵光。
另一条重要的经验是:凡事应以最终售出你的产品为准,而不仅限于策划。你得把焦点对准销售。我觉得特别是有些大公司在发展中变得停滞不前,对效益产出不太关心,这对业务拓宽很不利。
问: 在事业发展中,您是如何应对挫折的?
答: 做出调整,继续前进。年轻时,我常搭便车旅行。当别人站着干等过路车时,我会接着往前走,因为前面很可能有个拐角,在那儿你更可能搭上车。这就是我所谓的“做出调整,继续前行”。明天总会有不同的选择。运气也起作用。对人生起关键作用的事一旦发生,就能戏剧性地改变你的一生――所以凡事都与时间、机遇密不可分。
问: 如果从头开始,您会干什么呢?
答: 如果当不成宇航员,我就重操旧业。我感到很幸运。30年来,我周游各地,四处工作,赚该赚的钱,见有趣的人。我甚至想让我儿子也干这一行,因为我觉得这个行当的确能开阔思路。而且,近30年,事物真是变化很大。
有一些“螺旋桨”式的人物一味坐在角落,只是叽哩咕噜却不见行动;作为经理,我们就得鞭策他们尽展所长。许多人试图把信息产业弄得神神秘秘,我想,我所做的一些事就是为大家揭开这层面纱。
问: 什么事最令您生气?
答: 悬而不决和“精英”综合症――谁成功,谁就被“封杀”。在有些国家,人们对体坛英雄崇拜有余加,而对商业人士却赞誉不足。我说过,我不是个容易生气的人,但相当没耐性。我经常发现,在与一个公司合作的过程中,他们总会在一个重大决定上一而再、再而三地拖延时间。有时,他们花在调查方案上的钱比花在从你这儿购买它的钱还多。像咨询顾问还未做出最后决策就花光了预算的事我都经历过。我喜欢那些干脆利落、说干就干的人。
问: 您认为哪种管理策略被高估了?
答: 我们试过种种途径――外部协作、内部配置、策划更新、结构重组。我们把事情弄得太复杂了。我想,其实你只消问一下“业务中什么最重要?我们需要做什么?”就行了。我担心的是,业务可能被做得过于复杂――于是某些“信息污染”便会产生。
问: 什么时候是您业务中的最佳时刻?
答: 我还未遇到过这个时刻。虽然我已取得了很好的成绩,不过我一直很乐观,相信最佳时刻总会到来的。
问: 您认为下10年中,大企业的问题是什么?
答: 我想会是技术问题,即创造可持续的业务优势。尽管许多网络公司由于蹩脚的运营模式而倒闭,但对于商业通讯来说,技术的作用是不可思议的。大约150年前,工业革命大大简化了生产环节。现在是信息革命――虽然只是初见势头―在优化支撑着制造业的管理环节。迄今为止,用技术创造可持续业务优势是最大的商界革命。
问: 您是如何放松自己的?
答: 我真的很喜欢开那种叫做micro lights的国产轻型单人飞机――飞行时,你得全神贯注,不能想工作的事,否则难免出事受伤。我还是个读书迷。但是要想实实在在地放松,我就回家。我妻子把家弄得温馨无比,她可真是个了不起的人。

2007-12-08 17:07:33 来自青青岛社区
回复:【┳⑦号小妖┳】

第三篇        Passage 3

(Woodruff, the anchor of the Cable News Network of the U.S., had an interview with Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji during his visit to the U.S. The following is excerpted from the interview.)
伍: 前几天,您对议员们说,克林顿总统缺乏勇气,并建议他在一些政治问题上应做出让步。请问,总统真的给您留下这样的印象吗?您认为他在政治方面缺乏勇气吗?
ZHU:  I don’t think we should look at this as a matter of courage. Rather, it’s a judgment of opportunity. And this reflects his assessment of the domestic political situation in the U.S. And I believe that he should make up his mind and come to some conclusion, based on the views of Congress and on popular opinion in the United States. And I do believe he will make the right decision.
Well, based on my trip to the United States------so far I’ve already been to five cities, including New York, and tomorrow we will go to Boston------I’ve had an opportunity to come into contact with a good array of people in the United States, including members of Congress and people from the business community and people from the financial community and members of the press. And I found that all the Americans we’ve met have been very friendly to China.
And I think that this bodes well for a continuing progressive development in Sino-U.S. relations. And I feel that all the people we’ve met certainly would be supportive of China’s accession to the WTO.
And at two o’clock this afternoon, President Clinton called me on the telephone and I told him about the sense that I had. And he told me that he had the same sense.
So I don’t think it will take a very long time for us to achieve an agreement.
伍:克林顿总统已经谈过两国保持接触的重要性、您认为这很重要吗?
ZHU:  Well, what you call “engagement” we call a “friendly, cooperative relationship” between China and the United States. And I believe that a cooperative, friendly relationship between China and the United States is------has been, the consistent policy of your political parties, both the Republicans and the Democrats.
The policy in the United States has been a bipartisan one, ever since President Nixon first opened up the door of U.S.-China relations. After all, he was a Republican, but then it was during the administration of President Carter, who was a Democrat, that the countries achieved normal diplomatic relations. And subsequently, Presidents Reagan and Bush, who were Republicans, continued to promote and foster the relationship. And then the Democratic President Clinton and our President Jiang togather, announced that we were going to try to develop a constructive strategic partnership.
And so I think this chain of events shows that this policy has been a bipartisan one. And now I feel that we are entering into a new phase which is entirely consistent with the interests, not only of our two countries, but also with that of the world at large. And on the Chinese side, if you look back to Chairman Mao and Premier Zhou Enlai, and Mr. Deng Xiaoping, and now President Jiang Zemin, three successive generations of our leaders have also been supportive of this policy.
So I think that what you call “engagement” is the right way to go. And the so-called “containment” or even some people now call “soft containment” is not the right way.
伍: 最后,请问朱总理,您将给世界人民带来什么样的消息帮助他们了解他们目前对中国还不解的事情?您想让包括美国,欧洲和非洲人民在内的全世界人民了解中国的哪些方面?
ZHU:  Well, I think that in the current anti-China sentiment in the United States, the people whose voices are loudest, the ones who lack the understanding of China the most and often they are the ones who’ve never been to China. So, I think the best way to promote and facilitate better relations between China and the United States is to have more exchanges of visitors, to have people visit each other more often, and to have people communicate with each other better.
And during this current visit to the United States, I’ve had an opportunity to meet people from different walks of life in the U.S., including many ordinary American citizens. And I find that they all express feelings of friendship towards China. And on some issues, including issues raised by people in Congress like human rights and Tibet, after they hear my explanations of our views on these subjects they have expressed understanding of why we feel like what we do.
So I feel that if we are able to better promote mutual understanding between our two people,  the relationship between us will for sure improve.

第四篇 Passage 4

总统:首先,感谢你们今天腾出时间与我夫人和我座谈,还感谢下和村的全体村民对我们的欢迎。
很遗憾,我不得不花些时间去回答记者们的提问,但是,如你们所知,由于有12小时的时差,所以他们没有时间编发他们的报道了。谢谢你们的耐心等待。
实际上我们今天没有固定的话题。我想听听你们各位现在正在做些什么以及你们自己在过去的几年里所看到的中国发生的变化。
谁先说说?
DOCTOR:  I am from the Xiahe Village. I work in the local village clinic, and this is the lowest level clinic in China. We work according to the regulations from the government and we try to―one of our jobs is to prevent the common diseases in the countryside and report our work to the higher level government. Another responsibility of the lower level clinic is to treat common diseases in the countryside. That’s all for now.
总统夫人: 医生,你当医生以来看到这里村民们的健康状况有所改善吗?
DOCTOR:  There has been great improvement in the health quality of the countryside people, especially now we have more money and they do less physical work.
VILLAGER:  My name is Yao Lihua, and I am the manager of the Terra Cotta Warrior Artycraft Factory―I own a little factory. I am the manager there, and I also manage old people’s home. I am just a countrywoman, but ever since the reform, I now rent a factory and an old people’s home and, basically, the factory also supports the old people’s home.
Now the Chinese have become rich, but we shouldn’t forget about old people. In the 20th century we have in China more older people. We really should do more for them, and that’s the goal in my life. That’s what I want to do.
总统夫人: 请问你是怎样筹建工厂的?你是从哪里获得启动工厂的资金和你所需要的设备和原材料的?
VILLAGER:  I used my own money and got some loan from government and actually, several of us work together, so I also collect some funds from my partners.
总统: 将来每个国家都将面临这个大问题。在我们国家,美国人增长最快的是85岁以上的老人。目前他们数量还不多,但增长得快。每个社会都得找出照顾这些老人的最好办法。所以我很赞赏你正在做的工作。
VILLAGER:  My name is Yang Dongyi, and I am from Xiahe Village. I grew up in this village. First I was a farmer, and now I rent a little company. Ever since the liberation in 1949, there are three big changes I experienced myself in this village. The first change I experienced was that the life in the village after the liberation was better than before. Our life has improved compared to  that before the liberation. In 1992, our life experienced another improvement. Before 1989, the average income in the village was about―a little bit more than 100 yuan, and then in 1992, the average income in the village was more than 1,000 yuan. And now the average income in the village is over 3,000 yuan.
Before 1982, my whole family would only get about 100 yuan income per year. Now I and my wife and one daughter, the three of us, have more than 30,000 yuan income per year. I want to tell the president that the changes in my village and the change in my own family are also the change in the country.
My personal change, compared to that of some people in China is relatively small, and this place and Xi’an, compared to the coastal cities in China is still a little backward. But, of course, compared to the U.S., this village is a lot more―even more backward, but we would be willing to work very hard.
总统: 我首先要说的是,在如此短的时间内取得这么大的经济成就给我留下了很深的印象。你认为哪一具体的变化在帮助你和你的家人通过勤劳挣这么多钱上是最重要的呢?
VILLAGER:  The most important thing is we have a good policy in our country now. In the past, no matter what your abilities are, you are told to do what you are supposed to do. But after the reform, everyone can have the space to show his or her own talent and to work very hard.
The reason now the production improved so much is everybody can do what he or she is good at. Some people begin to do business, some people stay on the farmland, and some people begin to have their own company------they’re all doing what they’re good at. They are also paying more attention to learning the new technology, so their ability to work has greatly improved.
Another thing is they also learn from the foreign countries now. They borrow and learn the advanced technology from the foreign country and use in their own production. And that’s the main reason for the chances you have seen today.
VILLAGER: My name is Xie Limin. People like me have benefited the most ever since the reform. I served in the air force for 15 years and worked another 8 years in the government. In 1992 I opened a small restaurant with 80 seats. Now I have extended my restaurant to 500 seats.
My restaurant is among the best in Xi’an and very influential. I really wish to invite both of you to go to my restaurant and enjoy my food. If you don’t have the chance this time, you are still welcome to come back after you finish your duty as President.
总统: 谢谢。
VILAGER:  And I also want to ask what is your favorite Chinese dish?
总统: 哦,我现在明白了每天晚上都有500人到你餐馆用餐的原因了。(笑声)
总统夫人: 我想知道你们当中任何人是否也有问题问我们,因为我丈夫此行的目的之一是帮助中美两国人民增进彼此之间和对彼此生活的了解。
VILLAGER:  I want to ask the President why you want to hold this roundtable discussion with ordinary Chinese people.
总统: 有两个原因。首先,我认为,在美国,在中国,在任何国家,一件很重要的事是担任我这样职务的人要了解我们称之为平民百姓这一阶层的生活情况,了解我们制定的政策给人民的生活带来了什么影响。由于事实上,领导的目的就在于设法使普通公民的生活发生积极的变化。
其次,因为美国人民很想通过我的中国之行更多地了解中国人民。所以,我们在这里座谈的情景将会通过图像和报道传送给美国人民,因而在美国像你们这样的人就会感受到:经营餐馆,在学校教书、当商人、做学生、行医或办敬老院是怎么回事。因为对我们正在做的这件事,他们会以不同的方式来感受的。
VILLAGER:  I believe a President who is looking to the facts of people’s life must be a President who is supported by his people.
总统:谢谢。我们没有多少时间了,但我想再向医生提一个问题。你认为目前改进中国人民村级卫生保健水平面临的最大问题是什么?你们在采取措施更好地提高健康水平方面目前存在的最大问题又是什么呢?
DOCTOR:  First of all, from my past experience, I believe the biggest challenge is to improve the environmental situation. Prevention is also very important.
总统: 你讲的这一点很重要,对中国重要,对美国也很重要。一个国家在经济增长的同时要消耗更多的能源,开展更多的活动,从而给环境带来压力,特别是空气污染问题,它真正会影响人民的健康。所以中国的一个巨大问题包括美国仍然面临的一个问题是在促进经济增长的同时净化环境。我们可以双管齐下,但我们必须致力于这工作而且必须共同致力于这工作。
VILLAGER: I want to make one comment. All the business people in Xi’an want to improve the trade between the U.S. and China, and they like to see that China become America’s first biggest trade business partner. And I would, for myself, want to make more U.S. dollars. (Laughter)
总统:嗯,我将为此而努力,而且我也将为接受你的邀请而努力,在我卸任以后光顾你的餐馆。你知道,这太好了。担任我这一职务的大部分人都想知道在我们卸任之后还会不会有人邀请我们和他们一起用餐。(笑声)
非常感谢大家!谢谢!(鼓掌)。祝你们好运!谢谢!

2007-12-08 17:07:57 来自青青岛社区
回复:【┳⑦号小妖┳】

第八单元           Unit 8
现代教育           Modern Education


I. 阅读材料 Reading Material

第一篇 Passage 1

Dropping the Line

   College sophomore Dana Boulter had time to kill one sunny afternoon. So she spread out a blanket under a maple tree, turned on laptop computer and started surfing the Web. No messy wiring is required.
   Here at Greenville College, as at a growing number of campuses, students can log on from almost anywhere ----- outdoors, in classrooms, in the basketball stands.
   “It’s so nice here,” said Boulter, of Lincoln, Neb., checking stock quotes for an economics assignment. “I’m not confined in my campus.”
   Laptop computers connected to wireless networks give students ultimate mobility: They can check e-mail, chat with friends and otherwise stay on the Net while they roam about campus.
   “Students are the only group of people on college campuses who don’t have their own office,” said Richard Ridgeway, communications director at Buena Vista University in Storm Lake, Iowa. “Notebook computers make anywhere they are their office.”
   Buena Vista, Drexel and Wake Forest are among the universities that began campus-wide wireless service this fall. Greenville started its program a year ago, as did Carnegie Mellon University. Mount St. Mary College in Newburgh, N. Y., introduced a slower form of wireless service in 1996.
   Sure, the technology has drawbacks: the potential for greater security risks and congestion. Plus, laptop batteries last only a few hours, and students can goof off more easily in class.
   But wireless networks also let students collaborate more naturally. And schools do not have to install access ports anywhere a student might conceivably want to work.
   The technology is still cutting-edge at colleges and universities, which already tend to be leaders in Internet usage.
   No one keeps figures. But Tony Mordosky, past president of the Association of Telecommunications Professionals in Higher Education, estimates that less than 5 percent of campuses are fully wireless.
   Mordosky expects a wireless explosion in the next two to five years, similar to the growth of high-speed wiring in dormitories during the mid-1990s.
   Scores of schools are already testing wireless technology or equipping specific buildings to supplement their traditional wired networks. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln recently equipped its student union. Business schools at Purdue and Vanderbilt went wireless over the past year, and the University of Kansas’s law school will do so soon.
   The impetus: improvements in wireless speeds and reductions in prices in the past year or so.
   A small college can now set up an entire campus for a few hundred thousand dollars―far less than the cost of upgrading older buildings or extending wiring to every classroom desk. Larger schools can do so for a few million dollars.
   At Mount St. Mary, computer modems had been swamping the college’s phone network, but wiring dormitories with dedicated Net connections would have cost $150,000. The wireless route cost $30,000.
   Greenville also found going wireless cheaper than extending wires to dormitory rooms located blocks away from campus. To cover the entire 26-acre campus except for one parking lot and some remote athletic fields, technicians installed 60 access boxes along the walls or ceilings. Those boxes are slightly bigger than a smoke detector, with one or two antennae the size of a pen.
   A laptop-toting student who wants to connect can buy a wireless card for about $450 a semester.
   When a student is within range, the laptop automatically connects with a nearby access point, sending and receiving Internet traffic at up to 11 megabits per second, or 200 times faster than speediest telephone modem. Traffic moves from that access point to central servers through regular wiring.
   About half of Greenville’s 940 undergraduates have signed up. Though only a handful of schools across the country now issue or require laptops, Greenville will begin requiring them for incoming freshmen next year.
   Greenville College President James Mannoia routinely listens to Brazilian newscasts through the Web as he strolls to his office carrying his laptop.
   Some evenings, laptops light the main quad outdoors like giant fireflies.
   Eric Weidmann, a freshman from Fridley, Minn., brought his laptop to the cafeteria one afternoon to download music files.
   “What you do on the computer doesn’t always require a lot of thinking,” he said. “Now, I can talk to people without being in my room by myself.”
   Michael Dixon’s classes are scattered throughout the day. During breaks, the sophomore is often in the snack bar, chatting online with his parents in Stockton, Calif., or even doing Web-aided homework.
   During a class on computer basics, eight of 32 students surfed along on their laptops. One of them, senior B.J. Schneck liked the ability to go beyond the instructor’s demonstrations.
   “It enhances the leaning experience,” Schneck said. “We were able to check on the same things he was working on as well as explore on our own.”
   At Buena Vista, communications professor Paul Bowers had students collaborate in small groups to find online resources on political campaigns. Once professors tap into technology’s potential, he said, there “will be less lecturing and more students doing things on their own with teachers assisting them.”
   But some students catch up on personal e-mail instead of paying attention.
   Craig Boyd, a philosophy professor at Greenville, banned laptops last fall when he learned a student was checking baseball scores during class.
And unless all students have laptops, instructors cannot fully incorporate them into the curriculum. Buena Vista raised tuition about $1,000 a year, offset partly by financial aid, to buy wireless laptops for its1, 250 students. But where laptops are optional, are poorer students getting an equal education?
   Wireless networks use frequencies separate from cell phones. They share an unregulated 2.4 Gigahertz frequency with microwave ovens, newer cordless phones and devices using an emerging Bluetooth standard. As wireless products get popular, interference could become a problem.
   In the next few years, wireless networks will likely become commonplace at hotels, airport and some businesses, analysts say.
   Wireless networking will become a $2.2 billion industry by 2003, nearly three times the $800 million this year, projects Stan Schatt, a vice president at Giga Information Group. This figure is on top of the business for cell phones.
  
课文词语  Words and Expressions from the Text
laptop                           膝上电脑
quotes                           报价
congestion                       拥塞
ports                            端口
goof off                         打发时间
cutting-edge                      创新;革新
impetus                          推动力
antennae                         天线
laptop-toting                      背着手提电脑的学生  
megabit                          兆位
strolls                            漫步
quad                             院子
fireflies                          萤火虫
offset                            弥补,抵消
frequencies                       频率
hertz                           千兆赫
ovens                           微波炉

  

第二篇Passage 2

Beijing University

    The first university run by the Central Government of China was founded in 1898, named originally Imperial University. It was a product of the Reform Movement of 1898, which ushered in China's modern higher education. Since then it has been closely tied to the fate of the country.
    In February 1898, under the vigorous impetus of such noble-minded patriots of the Reform Movement as Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao, Emperor Guang Xu ordered the preparations to found a university. After its founding, the Imperial University inherited some of the duties of the Imperial College, the highest educational institution in feudal China, and it exercised control over the universities of the various provinces of the country. It therefore was not only the highest seat of learning, but the highest executive organ of education in the whole country as well. In 1912, the second year after the 1911 Revolution, the Imperial University changed its name to Beijing University, and the then well-known bourgeois reformist, enlightenment thinker and translator Yan Fu was appointed as the first president of Beijing University.
   Over the past hundred years, the group of China's contemporary universities, with Beijing University as its stellar representative, has played a pioneering role in China's historical course towards modernization, forming a glorious revolutionary as well as an exemplary academic tradition.
In 1916, Cai Yuanpei, our country's well known democratic revolutionary, educator and thinker, was appointed president of Beijing University. He advanced this guiding principle for running a school:" to abide by the principle of freedom of thought and to adopt an all-embracing doctrine." He carried out an effective reform in Beijing University which promoted ideological liberation and academic prosperity. In 1917, Chen Duxiu, the initiator of a new cultural movement, was appointed head of Beijing liberal arts section. He moved New Youth magazine from Shanghai to Beijing, carrying out a vigorous attack on feudal thoughts. As a result, Beijing University became China's center of the new cultural movement in opposing old thinking and old culture of   feudalism and advocating new thinking and a new culture.
In the great May fourth Patriotic Movement, it was Beijing University which first lighted the revolutionary torch of anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism. As a new ideology and culture, Marxism was the first to achieve in Beijing University its primary stage of propagation in China. Professor Li Dazhao of Beida was the first Chinese who embraced and propagated Marxism. In the course of the founding of the Chinese Communist Party, the first members of Peking’s Party group consisted entirely of Beida people. Mao Zedong also received his enlightenment through Marxist education in Peking University.
    As China's first earliest center of education and scientific research, Beijing University has gathered China's most brilliant specialists and scholars, continuously opened up, blazed new trails, engaged itself in reform and development for training high-quality talent and achieving high-level scientific fruits that deeply influenced and advanced the range of China's higher education. In 1903, the Imperial University sent its first group of 46 students to study abroad, an act which marked the beginning of China's higher institutions sending students to study abroad. In 1920, a contingent of three young women students were enrolled in Beijing University, an act which ushered in coeducation in China's institutions of higher learning. In addition, it was Beijing University which first taught Marxist theory, started aesthetic education and introduced Einstein's theory of relativity, which produced far-reaching influence in China's institutions of higher learning.
    After the founding of New China, Beijing University became a university able to boast of its rich resources of the teaching staff and a most complete faculty of liberal arts, sciences and foreign languages. The teachers and students of the university have continued to bring creative initiative into full play and founded China's first atomic energy department. In the 60's, the university joined hands with other fraternal units and successfully developed artificially synthesized bovine insulin, which was the first instance in the world of using artificial means in the synthesis of a protein with biological energy. It produced profound theoretic and academic significance in the study of life sciences. In the eighties, Beijing University developed a computer-laser Chinese character editing and typesetting system, which enabled China's printing industry to end its history of lead and fire and step into a period of light and electricity. In the nineties, Beida Fangzheng has become an enterprise group, one producing the highest benefits among all China's institutions of higher learning.
For a hundred years, Beijing University and China's many other universities together have trained and raised generation after generation of high-quality talent. This university is closely linked with the fate of our country. Its centenary history serves almost as a history of rejuvenation that concentrated the ideology, culture, science and education of the nation. It is the glory of Beijing University as well as the pride of the Chinese nation.

课文词语 Words and Expressions from the Text

usher in…                                  以……为开端
Imperial University                           京师大学堂
Imperial College                             国子监(封建社会中国的最高学府)
The highest executive organ of education          最高教育行政管理机构      
stellar representative                          杰出代表
exemplary academic tradition                   优良的学术传统        
“to abide by the principle of freedom of thought   “循思想自由原则、取兼容并包主义”
and to adopt an all-embracing doctrine.”
The initiator of a new cultural movement          新文化运动的倡导者
blaze new trails                              开拓精神
artificially synthesized bovine insulin             人工合成牛胰岛素                                             
Chinese character editing and typesetting system    汉字编辑排版系统                    
a history of rejuvenation                        一部振兴历史

II.口译实践  Interpretation Practice
听译下列课文 Listen to the Following Passages and Interpret Them:

第一篇(英译汉)Passage 1 (E---C)

相关词语  Related Words and Expressions:
collidge                            学院
nurse numbers of great people          培养大批伟人
get world wide admiration             誉满全球
endowment                         资助
crimson                            绯红的
lampoon                           讽刺文学
award…degree                      授予…学位
Finnish- American architect            芬兰籍美国建筑师
manuscript                         手稿
biographer                         传记作家

Among all American universities, Harvard and Yale University are the two oldest and most prestigious ones. In their long history, they have nursed numbers of great people and thus got world wild admiration
Harvard University began in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, when a college was set up by the Massachusetts General Court with a sum of 400 English pounds "for a schooled or collidge". The college gained the name Harvard in 1639 after an English clergyman, John Harvard, became one of the early financial supporters. Today Harvard has probably the world's biggest university endowment or private financial support fund. United States presidents who have graduated from Harvard include John F&#8226; Kennedy, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D&#8226; Roosevelt, John Quincy Adams and John Adams. The Harvard University library is also the oldest in the United States, containing more than 12 million volumes in its central, undergraduate and departmental collections. Harvard has had an important role in training Americans for national and public office and two important schools are the Harvard Law School and the John Fitzgerald Kennedy School of Government. Notable publications produced by Harvard include the Harvard Law Review and the humor magazine Harvard Lampoon. Harvard enrolment is just over 18,000.
Yale University was founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School in Branford, Connecticut. It was moved to its present site in New Haven in 1716. In 1718 it was named Yale College after Elihu Yale, an English merchant who earned his money from the East India trade. In 1861 Yale College awarded the first Doctor of Philosophy degree in the United States. The college officially became Yale University in 1887. Graduates have included the America presidents William Howard Taft, Gerald Ford, George Bush and George W. Bush. The school of medicine was the first professional school to be set up at Yale in 1813. Some of its modern buildings were designed by the Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen who is a graduate of Yale. Yale library's 7.5 million volumes include collections of material relating to the American West, the manuscripts of the journals kept by 18th-century biographer James Boswell, and the papers of American author Gertrude Stein. Yale enrolment is about 11,000.&#47017;

第二篇(英译汉)Passage 2 (E---C)

相关词语 Related words and expressions

alumna                           女校友
alumnus                          男校友
alumni                           校友(复数)
civic origin                        城市的起源
Sorbonne                        (巴黎)的索本神学院,巴黎大学的前身
teeming city                       繁忙的城市
academia                         学术界
culmination of an outstanding career   杰出事业的顶峰
barrister                          律师
one-to-one tutorial                  一带一导师制
academically rewarding              学术上受益
breeding ground                    温床
cut their professional teeth            开始他们的职业生涯
classical music ensemble             古典乐团
rich, exalted history                 丰富而声誉高的历史

    For centuries, Oxford has been at Britain's intellectual heart, perhaps the most prestigious among Europe's many ancient universities. It lies only 50 miles from London, close to the centers of power―Parliament and the Law Courts. Oxford has attracted students and scholars from all over the world. They have gone on to achieve the highest positions in their own countries in politics, administration, science and the arts. Alumni include numerous eminent scientists, literary figures and such overseas politicians as American President Bill Clinton, Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and the Philippines’ President Gloria Arroyo.
    Its civic origins go back to the Middle Ages. At that time, Oxford was a small town built on a mound of gravel between two deep rivers, the Thames and the Cherwell, at a place where oxen could ford the waters. As a place of learning Oxford's beginnings are equally distant. Legend has it that Alfred laid its foundations at the end of the ninth century. By the 12th century scholars were teaching in the town and their renown had spread to the Continent, particularly to the Sorbonne in Paris, then Europe's greatest center of learning. A group of English scholars left the French capital in 1167 to settle in Oxford and the place became a magnet for students and teachers from all over Britain. Today Oxford is a large, teeming city, but the cluster of ancient university buildings in the center―colleges, libraries, museums and administrative blocks Chas remained largely untouched. While most old universities have modernized radically to accommodate their growing populations, Oxford has managed to expand while still preserving its traditional collegiate structure. The 36 existing colleges, varying from the older houses to the newest such as Green, are independent, self-governing institutions operating under the umbrella of the University of Oxford.
    Few positions in academia are grander than being head of an Oxford college. Usually it is the culmination of an outstanding career and a reward for decades of public service. The post requires the combined talents of diplomat, administrator and academic. As Sir Roger Bannister, former Master of Pembroke College says:" Heading an Oxford college was a new challenge, you should recognize the needs and aspirations of the students and help to realize them. The three-year period students spend at Oxford is the most important of their lives; it shapes their future careers; the friendships they form will last for ever."
   Every year in Oxford, among thousands of applicants, only a few hundred are chosen by each college through an increasingly competitive process. Once accepted, the undergraduates benefit from a range of traditional privileges. The most notable and the rarest of these is the one- to-one tutorial, at which a student presents his or her work to the tutor. The relationship of profound respect and trust that can develop between teacher and pupil over three years can be as lasting as it is academically rewarding. Years after students have left they return to their tutors for advice and guidance.
    Parallel to their academic work, students can cultivate their particular talents and interests by joining a vast range of societies. Many of Britain's finest actors, actresses and theatre directors started their careers at the Oxford University Dramatic Society. The Oxford Union (short for the Oxford University Debating Society) has been a breeding ground for the country's political leaders and celebrated barristers. Debate topics there vary from politics, philosophy, religion and ethics to less lofty subjects. The list of famous politicians who cut their professional teeth here is endless, such as the British Prime Ministers Edward Heath and Margaret Thatcher, and the Prime Minister of other countries as well.
   Another famous institution is the Oxford University Boat Club, founded in 1839. Each college has its own team of rowers, and the best among them are chosen to form the Oxford squad. Although boating is not usually a spectator sport, millions watch the annual duel between Oxford and Cambridge on television and tens of thousands more line the banks of the Thames.
   Oxford has a rich musical life, too. Students who play an instrument are encouraged to develop their talents. Some form pop and rock music groups, playing at parties and dances, while others create classical music ensembles. The best musicians are invited to join the Oxford University Orchestra.
So generations of students, scholars and teachers come and go, each adding a layer to the university's rich, exalted history as Oxford shines everlasting.

第三篇(汉译英)Passage 3  (C―E)

相关词语  Related Words and Expressions
皇家园林                    royal garden
滋润着一代代清华学子        inspired and motivated generations of Tsinghua students                       
国立清华大学                National Tsinghua University
多科性的大学                a polytechnic institution
工程技术                    engineering
蓬勃发展                    flourish
惊人的速度                  a breath-taking pace
综合性的                    comprehensive
独特的魅力                  characteristic charm
治学严谨                    rigorous scholarship research
中科院院士                  Academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
工程院                      the Chinese Academy of Engineering
教育理念                    educational doctrine
学术大师、兴业之才和治国之才outstanding scholars, eminent entrepreneurs and great statesmen
世界一流                    world-class
自强不息、厚德载物          Self-discipline and Social Commitment

清华大学校园地处北京西北郊,是在几处清代皇家园林的遗址上发展而成的。清华校园周围高等学府和名园古迹林立。园内林木俊秀,水木清华,滋润着一代代清华学子。
    清华大学的前身是清华学堂,始建于1911年。1912年,清华学堂更名为清华学校。1928年更名为"国立清华大学",并于1929年秋开办研究院。中华人民共和国成立后,清华大学成为一所多科性的大学,重点是工程技术。 1978年以来,清华大学进入了一个蓬勃发展的新时期,恢复了理科、经济管理和人文科学等学科。清华以惊人的速度成为当代中国一所著名的综合性大学。
    水清木华90载,清华散发着独特的魅力,这里治学严谨、学风浓郁,有着良好的学术水平和教学质量。清华大学现有教职工约7100人,其中中科院院士24名、中国工程院院士24名,正高级职务900余人,副高级职务1200余人。清华大学的教育理念是"培养具有为社会服务之健全品格"的人才。建校至今,她共培育了10多万名毕业生,其中包括一批又一批中华民族引以为自豪的学术大师、兴业之才和治国之才。清华大学一直是全国最优秀考生一心向往之的所在。目前,清华在校学生20000多名,其中本科生12000多名,硕士生6200多名,博士生2800多名。
在国家重点支持下,清华大学面临着前所未有的机遇。跻身二十一世纪世界一流大学行列已成为今天全体清华人的努力方向。在"自强不息、厚德载物"的精神的激励下,清华将为我们民族的富强奋斗不止。

第四篇(汉译英) Passage 4 (C---E)

相关词语  Related Words and Expressions

企业家,事业家                  entrepreneur
毕业典礼                        graduation ceremony
洗脑子                          brain- washing
学校的自助餐厅                  cafeteria
盛行                            prevail
模拟培训                        simulated training
聪明的,知晓的                  savvy
工商管理硕士                    MBA (master of business administration)
股东                            shareholder
本能,直觉能力                  instinct
竞技场,比赛场                  arena

去年,北京大学为来自全国各地的200多名企业家创建了一所专门的培训学院。这些企业家也像其他学生一样,不是驾驶着豪华的轿车,而是骑着自行车来上课的。
在毕业典礼上,一位企业家说:“在知识经济时代,只有那些掌握了科学技术理论的人才能走在前边。 你可能拥有豪华轿车,但这并不意味着你拥有未来社会所需要的知识。重要的是要不断学习。”
这些企业家每周来上一次课,用他们的话说是来“洗脑”或“破除旧观念,获得新思路。” 授课教师是来自社会各行业的专家,课程内容主要是关于商业计划、市场营销、资金管理、企业发展策略以及职工培训方面的实例分析。
邓子强是松本电器公司的总裁,一个百万富翁,但在校期间,他表面上和其他学生没有什么区别,穿着蓝色牛仔裤,在学生自助餐厅用餐。虽然他现在事业上很成功,但他相信深造对于成功是所必不可少的。他说:“21世纪是规则和条例的世纪。如果你连游戏的规则都不懂,你就不可能取胜。”在六个月内,邓子强学完了他所选的九门课程,在参加营销和公共关系课期末考试时,他非常自信,一个小时就答完了本应三个小时做完的试题。
北京大学经济学院的副院长郑秀仪教授说:“企业家是中国市场经济的中坚,他们对学院开设的这种实例分析和模拟训练课程很感兴趣。” 郑教授指出,这些企业家们事业一开始都很成功,但现在都面临着一些进一步发展的问题。而学校里开设的课程将使他们对于现代商业的规则更加了解。
北京大学同时开设国际工商管理硕士课程。今年27岁的何正,是国际工商管理硕士班的一名学员,七岁时就跟着父亲学做生意。在大学四年间,他赚了第一个一百万。25岁时,他已经成为广州一家广告公司的大股东。他说过五十岁时他要成为十亿富翁。
何正具有做生意的天赋。他也承认他做决定大多依靠本能,而不是通过对经济指标的分析。他说,“我既不擅长金融事务,也不善于通过数据分析和商业模式进行管理。这些正是我需要改变的弱点。”
在新世纪里,企业家们面临着来自知识领域越来越激烈的竞争。要想跟上新观念、掌握新技术,在大学里进修是他们的最佳选择。

III. 参考译文 Reference Version

第一篇  Passage 1

    在美国所有的大学中,哈佛大学和耶鲁大学是两所最古老最著名的大学。在其漫长的历史过程中,两校培育了大批伟人,并因此而誉满全球。
    哈佛大学1636年始建于马萨诸塞州的坎波里奇市,当时只是一所由马萨诸塞州法庭出资400英镑建起的“学校或者叫学院”。1639年英国一位牧师约翰&#8226;哈佛成为该校最早的经济赞助人之一。此后,这所学院就被称为哈佛大学。今天,哈佛大学可能拥有世界上最大的大学办学资金或者叫私人经济赞助资金。毕业于哈佛大学的美国总统有约翰&#8226;肯尼迪、西奥多&#8226;罗斯福、富兰克林&#8226;罗斯福、约翰&#8226;昆西&#8226;亚当斯和约翰&#8226;亚当斯。哈佛大学图书馆也是美国最古老的图书馆。学校中心图书馆、本科部及各系图书馆共藏书1200多万卷。哈佛在培养国家领导和公务员方面起着重要作用,其中哈佛法学院和约翰&#8226;费茨杰罗德&#8226;肯尼迪政治学院就是这样的两所重要学院。哈佛出版的著名刊物有《哈佛法律周刊》及幽默杂志《哈佛讽刺文学》。哈佛每年入学人数超过18,000人。
    耶鲁大学起初是一所社区学校,1701年成立于康涅狄格州的布兰福特。1716年迁到现在所在地纽黑文。1718年,一位名叫艾立休&#8226;耶鲁的英国商人将其在东印度公司贸易中赚得的钱捐给该校,耶鲁学院由此得名。1861年,耶鲁学院在美国率先授予博士学位。1887年,学院正式改为耶鲁大学。耶鲁大学的毕业生中包括美国总统威廉&#8226;豪威尔德&#8226;泰福特、杰罗德福特和乔治&#8226;布什和现任总统小布什。成立于1813年的医学院是耶鲁的第一所专业学院。耶鲁校园的一些现代建筑是由本校毕业生,芬兰籍美国建筑师伊罗&#8226;萨里南设计的。耶鲁图书馆有藏书750万卷,其中有关于美国西部的珍贵资料,18世纪传记作家詹姆斯&#8226;波斯威尔的日记手稿及美国作家格特鲁德&#8226; 斯坦恩的作品。耶鲁大学每年入学人数大约为11,000人。

2007-12-08 17:08:25 来自青青岛社区
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