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这个网站有很多GRE,GMAT,TOEFL资料的下载

http://www.microedu.com/download/gre/index.htm

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2005-11-18 20:05:33 来自青青岛社区 法律声明 回复 | 引用 | 编辑 | 举报
TOEFL听力段子十大黄金原则


我深信,这十大原则不仅适用于TOEFL听力的段子,也适用于其它比如IELTS,四、六级,考研等考试的听力段子。可以说:一次学会,一劳永逸。

Mine:

  1. 听见什么,选什么原则

  该原则为“TOEFL听力段子十大黄金原则”之首,因为其它九大原则都建立在它的基础之上。

  2.重复原则

  听段子时,要特别注意那些“重复率高的词或概念”。因为重复率高的东西容易引起我们听者的注意。毕竟托福的测试对象是我们这些把英语作为第二语言的人,所以ETS的考点也只能是那些对我们而言,通过努力能听懂的地方。
Bonus:

  段子中“重复率最高的词或概念”很可能就是这个段子的主题(TOPIC)。

  3.建议原则

  听段子时,要特别注意那些“含有建议含义的词或结构”。因为无论段子还是对话,建议的地方永远做考点。

Multiply:

  历年TOEFL听力段子中最常考的建议类结构汇编:
1) You should
2) I suggest / I propose / I recommend
3) proposal / tips / suggestion / advice/ recommedation
4) had better do sth. / be better off doing sth.
5) How about…? / What about…?
6) Why not…? / Why don’t you…?
7) If I were you, I would…/ I wouldn’t…
8) Would it make things go faster if you…?
9) Maybe / Perhaps you…
10) How does … sound?

  4. 强调原则

  乍听上去,强调原则显得很笼统。其实具体可分为两大类:语义强调和语气、语调强调。语义强调包括含义强调、解释强调、举例强调、级别强调、结论强调、对比强调等六种。语气、语调强调包括重音强调、停顿强调、清晰强调等三种。

  下面我们就来一一论述,先讲“语义强调的六大分支”。

  1)含义强调:

  听段子时,要特别注意那些“本身含义上就给我们以震撼或触动的词或结构”。比如:“Especially”一词后面的内容一定是考点,因为它本身就表示“尤其是”,体现了ETS的“求异思想”。再比如:“new theory”周围也一定存在考点,因为这体现了ETS的“求新思想”。有时ETS为强调某事,还特意用一些极其显而易见的表达方式提醒我们,例如:“indeed(真正得)”、“certainly(当然)”、“Just remember(一定要记住)”、“And again.(再说一遍)”、“special feature(特殊的特征)”、“Most importantly(最为重要的是)”、“One thing I should mention(我应该提及的是……)”、“Make / Be sure to…(一定要……)”等等。更多的含义强调词还靠大家自己积累和体会。

  2)解释强调:

  听段子时,要特别注意那些“本身含义上带有解释性质的词或结构”。比如:“…, which is / that is…(那就是说……)”显然,“which is / that is…”引导的定语从句是ETS为防止我们考生听不懂前面的内容(生僻的词或概念),而特意添加上去,用来进一步加以解释的。所以这种解释性的定语从句理所当然就成了强调考点所在的重要标志。类似的结构如“What I mean is…”、“All that means is…”等等不胜枚举。

  3)举例强调:

  听段子时,要特别注意那些“带有举例或列举性质的词或结构”。比如:“for example…(例如……)”因为例子总比道理简单易懂得多。ETS清楚地知道:考生明白了后面的举例,自然也就理解了前面的概念,然后再考前面的概念也就顺理成章了。这点显然跟解释原则类似。所以这种举例或列举式的结构也成了强调考点所在的重要标志。类似的结构如“for instance”、“such as…”“namely…”、“as an example”、“take example for ”等等不胜枚举。

  4)级别强调:

  听段子时,要特别注意那些“带有级别比较(比较级或最高级)性质的词或结构”。比如:“much higher than…(比……高得多)”,因为有比较就有观点,是观点就是考点。所以这种带有级别比较(比较级或最高级)性质的词或结构也成了表明考点所在的重要标志。类似的结构还有“-er”、“-est”“more”、“most”、“mostly”、“first”、“last”、“majority(多数派)”、“minority(少数派)”、“above all(首要的是)”等等举不胜举。

  5)结论强调:

  听段子时,要特别注意那些“带有结论、总结性质的词或结构”。比如:“I concluded that…(我的结论是……)”,不可否认,结论性言语在哪里都是最重要的,所以这种带有结论、总结性质的词或结构也标志着考点的存在。类似的结构还有“conclusion”、“summarize”、“make a summary(总结)”、“in brief(概括说)”、 “in short(简而言之)”、“in a word(简而言之)”、“in a conclusion”、 “finally”、“all in all”、“to sum up”等等举不胜举。

  6)对比强调:

  听段子时,还要特别注意那些“带有对比性质的词或结构”。比如:“compare to…(与……相比)”这种带有对比性质的词或结构也标志着考点就在周围。类似的结构还有“unlike(不象)”、“similar to(与……类似)”、“in contrast to(与……对照)”、“differently”、“alike(象)”、“resemble(类似)” “on the other hand” “instead” “likewise” “in the same way”等等。

  接下来讲语气、语调强调的三大分支。

  1)重音强调:

  听段子时,我们作为听者,都会下意识地注意听那些“读音很重的词或结构”。因为它们got our attention(抓住了我们的注意力)。这就是ETS本能强调的突出体现。所以重音所在必为考点所在。

  2)停顿强调:

  一个段子读得好好的,突然一个停顿,过了一两秒种后才恢复过来。这种嘎然而止的现象特别能引起我们考生的注意。同样也达到了ETS get attention的目的,成为本能强调的又一突出体现。所以停顿所在必为考点所在。

  3)清晰强调:

  该强调方式最具隐蔽性。因为大多数考生有一种奇怪的想法:认为容易听清听懂的地方不会考,最会考的是那些生僻难懂之处。所以不惜花大量时间和精力去分析、猜测难点含义,却忽略以致放弃已经听懂的地方。不要忘记TOEFL是第二语言测试,不会“没有人性”到“专考生僻所在”。所以应引起我们充分重视的还是那些读得清晰的易懂之处。切记:清晰之处一样是考点所在。

  5. 因果原则

  听段子时,要特别注意那些“含有因果含义的词或结构”。因为无论段子还是对话,有因果的地方永远做考点。因果类标志词又可细分为原因类和结果类。

Multiply:

  历年TOEFL听力段子中最常考的因果类结构汇编:

  原因类:
 
1) because …
2) because of …
3) due to …
4) since …
5) as …
6) for …
7) The reason is …
8) That’s why …
9) By reason of …
10) Owing to …
 
  结果类:
 
1) so …
2)so that …
3)therefore …
4)thereby …
5)hereby …
6)thus …
7)As a result
8)consequently …
9)hence …
10)accordingly …

       6.转折原则

  听段子时,还要特别注意那些“含有转折含义的词或结构”。因为无论段子还是对话,转折的地方永远做考点。

Multiply:

历年TOEFL听力段子中最常考的转折类结构汇编:
1) but …
2) however …
3) nevertheless …
4) while …
5) yet …
6) unless …
7) except for …
8) actually …
9) in fact …
10) To tell you the truth …
11) practically …
12) virtually …
13) as a matter of fact …

  7. 问答原则

  听段子时,还要特别注意那些“含有一问一答或自问自答形式的句子或结构”。往往问题就会做为考题,而对问题的回答就是考点所在,即正确答案的出处。

  8.开头原则

  听段子时,要特别注意听清“段子开头的一两句话”。往往TOPIC(主题)会在这一带出现,而主题必为考点。

  9.尾巴原则

  同样,还要特别注意听清“段子结束时的一两句话”。往往CONCLUSION(结论)会在这一带出现,而结论也必为考点。

  10. 人名原则

  切记:听段子时,不论是文科段还是理科段,只要出现人名的地方,往往“埋伏着”考点。因为后面必有一道题会问这个人的地位、作用和所做出的特殊贡献。故含有人名之处必为考点。

2005-11-18 20:09:22 来自青青岛社区
[分享]全方面分析雅思与大量资料下载


                   (1)

怎样讲一口地道英语的对策


Speaking good English isn't difficult if you are ready to spend time on it and have more patience. In order to make it all you have to do is conquer some 200-300 sentence patterns and about 2000 words. This is absolutely not nonsense. If you read any situational English book and try to collect all the useful words and sentence patterns from it, you'll know what I am saying here is definitely correct!

只是你肯花时间和有耐性,要讲一口漂亮的英语并不难。因为只要掌握常用的200-300个句型和2000个左右的单词即可畅所欲言!这并非无废话哦,不妨找本情景会话英语书仔细看看,并把每个情景的常用的句型和词汇摘录就可知道我所说的是否属实了。

Like I said, all you have to do is spend time on it and have patience and your learning habit need to be changed a little bit. Once you decide to do so, keep stick to it and you'll succeed in not time!

而现在你所需要做的是改变学习英语的习惯并需要的时间和耐性。决心已定,则必须坚持,那么学好口语指日可待!

My advice here goes: A situational English book with tapes is the end solution for your conquering oral English and with no extra cost anymore.
It can help you with your pronunciation and let you have the sense you need when you speak English. Furthermore you can have all the practical sentence patterns and vocabularies together.

我的建议是:一本带磁带的情景会话英语手册即是你征服英语口语的最终解决方案而无须再做更多无谓的投资。你可以借助它来攻克发音和培养英语语感。且同时掌握了常用的词汇和句型。

Using it is one of the most important rules which you need to bear in mind.
I never doubt that you can remember ten or more sentences a day, but without using it, it's not yours. And you'll forget it soon as time goes.

用你所学是一条需要紧记的原则。我不怀疑你一天能记住10条或更多的句子,但不去用它还不是你的。且日久定忘掉。

Writing daily journal or participating in some topic is a good way to practice English. Writing means a lot, I think, because it allows you enough time to think. You won't have this in real situation. I am sure that you can talk whatever you can write. Because the source is the same.

如写日记或参加专题讨论就是训练英语的最好方法。写尤其重要,因为写有足够的时间让你去想。这在真实环境中是不可能有的。能写什么自然就能说什么,因为无论写还是说都是来自大脑

                  (2)

IELTS学术类阅读黄金法则及解题全攻略

雅思学术类阅读虽然有十种题型(八种主要题型),但在解题过程中有一条贯穿始终的黄金法则,那就是学术类阅读的基本解题思路。

STEP ONE:分析文章后的题目
拿到一篇阅读文章,考生应该首先细读题目要求,确定哪些是关于文章结构的题目,哪些是关于文章细节的题目,同时找出题目中的中心词。

STEP TWO:带着问题扫描文章

1.扫描标题
考生拿到一篇雅思学术类阅读文章,首先应该看一下文章的标题,而迄今为止,雅思学术类阅读理解考试中大致出现过下列三种题目类型:第一种是正规标题,
可用来判断文章大意、类型、进而得知文章结构;第二种是主标题加副标题,副标题有时承担揭示文章结构的重任;第三种是无标题,这种考试形式自99 年开在中国考区出现,一般文章较长而且难,但仍然可以在文章第一段发现揭示文章主题的主旨句。考生应注意:描述性标题应该予以忽略;如果文章分几个SECTION 论述,则SECTION 的标题也应该加以注意.

2.扫描全文的分段情况及其他信息
考生应注意数字、百分比、分数、时间或货币符号出现较多的段落;引号、大写
专有名词、括号及破折号出现较多的段落;斜体字、黑体字、下划线出现较多的
段落.

3.扫描每个段落的首末句,把握文章主题:
主题句提示文章每段的主题含意,进而合成整个文章的大意。因此,一定要找出
主题句,从而找出这一段的主题。主题句通常是一段文章的首句(当然并非永远雅如此),寻找主题句的方法可按下列顺序:
首句 --→ 第二句 --→中间句--→ 末句
注意:如果首句是描述性语句则应该予以忽略
通过段落首末句判断段落主题的关键是找准中心词(KEY WORD)
中心词最可能是表示主要概念的名词,一般是句子的主语和宾语;表明状态的动词;表示程度高低、范围大小、肯定或否定的副词;中心词会在题目及原文中以同义词形式大量出现。比如:famous - prestigious;restructure delayer.

4. 扫描连接上下文的信号词

5. 扫描文章文章中是否有图表或示意图
这些图表一般包含了一些有关回答问题的信息,因此可以先对这些图表做一扫描,了解其内容从而加快答题速度,不然的话,就可能陷在文章中四处找寻答案而乱无头绪。但应注意,一般照片、地图、漫画可以予以忽略。

STEP THREE: 以问题为中心,通过上述扫描工作,找出文章中对应的中心词,从而定位正确答案。



雅思精彩范句大全

来源: 【无忧雅思网】

发贴:summer81318     

"句子就是财富,句子就是一切
这些句子是从近百篇雅思优秀作文中摘录下来并经反复推敲提炼而成的.对于复习时间短,基础较薄弱的朋友能够在短期内熟悉且背诵这些经典句子无疑是准备雅思考试的“捷径”。

No one can deny the fact that a person’s education is the most important aspect of his life.
没有人能否人这一事实:教育是人生最重要的一方面.

people equate success in life with the ability of operating computer .
人们把会使用计算机与人生成功相提并论

According to a recent survey ,four-million people die each year from diseases linked to smoking.
依照最近的一项调查,每年有4,000,000人死于与吸烟相关的疾病.

The latest surveys show that Quiet a few children have unpleasant associations with homework.
最近的调查显示相当多的孩子对家庭作业没什么好感.

No invention has received more praise and abuse than Internet.
没有一项发明象互联网同时受到如此多的赞扬和批评.

People seem to fail to take into account the fact that education does not end with graduation.
人们似乎忽视了教育不应该随着毕业而结束这一事实.

Many experts point out that physical exercise contributes directly to a person’s physical fitness.
许多专家指出体育锻炼直接有助于身体健康

Nowadays ,many students always go into raptures at the mere mention of the coming life of high school or college they will begin. Unfortunately ,for most young people ,it is not pleasant experience on their first day on campus.
当前,一提到即将开始的学校生活,许多学生都会兴高采烈.然而,对多数年轻人来说,校园刚开始的日子并不是什么愉快的经历

In view of the seriousness of this problem ,effective measures should be taken before things get worse.
考虑到问题的严重性,在事态进一步恶化之前,必须采取有效的措施

TProper measures must be taken to limit the number of foreign tourists and the great efforts should be made to protect local environment and history from the harmful effects of international tourism.
应该采取适当的措施限制外国旅游者的数量,努力保护当地环境和历史不受国际旅游业的不利影响.

An increasing number of experts believe that migrants will exert positive effects on construction of city .However ,this opinion is now being questioned by more and more city residents ,who complain that the migrants have brought many serious problems like crime and prostitution.
越来越多的专家相信移民对城市的建设起到积极作用.然而,越来越多的城市居民却怀疑这种说法,他们抱怨民工给城市带来了许多严重的问题,象犯罪和卖淫.

Many city residents complain that it is so few buses in their city that they have to spend much more time waiting for a bus ,which is usually crowded with a large number of passengers.
许多市民抱怨城市的公交车太少,以至于他们要花很长时间等一辆公交车,而车上可能已满载乘客.

There is no denying the fact that air pollution is an extremely serious problem :the city authorities should take strong measures to deal with it.
无可否认,空气污染是一个极其严重的问题:城市当局应该采取有力措施来解决它。

An investigation shows that female workers tend to have a favorable attitude toward retirement.
一项调查显示妇女欢迎退休.

A proper part-time job does not occupy student's too much time .In fact ,it is unhealthy for them to spend all of time on their study .As an old saying goes :All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy
一份适当的业余工作并不会占用学生太多的时间,事实上,把全部的时间都用到学习上并不健康,正如那句老话:只工作,不玩耍,聪明的孩子会变傻.

Any government which is blind to this point may pay a heavy price.bbs.exue.com.cnEmF6]1l
任何政府忽视这一点都将付出巨大的代价.


An increasing number of people are beginning to realize that education is not complete with graduation.
越来越多的人开始意识到教育不能随着毕业而结束


When it comes to education ,the majority of people believe that education is a lifetime study
说到教育,大部分人认为其是一个终生的学习.

The majority of students believe that part-time job will provide them with more opportunities to develop their interpersonal skills ,which may put them in a favorable position in the future job markets.
大部分学生相信业余工作会使他们有更多机会发展人际交往能力,而这对他们未来找工作是非常有好处的.

It is indisputable that there are millions of people who still have a miserable life and have to fact the dangers of starvation and exposure.
无可争辩,现在有成千上万的人仍过着挨饿受冬的痛苦生活.

Although this view is widely held ,this is little evidence that education can be obtained at any age and at any place.
尽管这一观点被广泛接受,很少有证据表明教育能够在任何地点任何年龄进行.


雅思要达6分:三个“瓶颈”需突破

到国外留学,许多较好的学校对入学语言能力都有雅思6.0的要求。这给很多想出国的高中生提出了难题:如何能够在高中英语水平的基础上迅速提高突破雅思6分大关。
  对15000名参加雅思培训的高中同学的调查表明,对于广大需要出国的高中生来讲,雅思要考到6分或者更高的分数,有三个“瓶颈”是必须要突破的。

1.词汇
  对于一个高中毕业学生,基本上掌握的词汇在2000到2500个左右,雅思考试要考到6分或者更高,至少需要5000个以上的精确词汇基础。什么是精确词汇呢?就是我们在看到一些单词时,既要知道其常用的意思,也要了解它们的衍生含义及用法。

2.生活背景以及知识
  面对于高中毕业生或者初入大学的同学,他们的阅历比经过几年大学生活或者工作过一段时间的朋友要缺乏。以这样的状态去参加雅思考试,他们必须面对口语以及阅读考试中的难关。因为知识面的狭窄,考官对于他们的回答往往不会给出高分。

  3.考试题型及技巧

   雅思的目的就是衡量考生是否具备在国外生活和学习的能力,因此考试更加倾向于能力方面,雅思涉及面、题型、方式等都和我们现在参加的高考或者是四、六级考试有着很大的区别,怎样能够快速适应雅思考试,掌握必要的考试技巧也是摆在广大高中生面前的一大难题



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提高雅思口语成绩的捷径--口译法

“口译法”的口语学习方法,有7大优点,相信你一定会爱不释手。这种方法非常有效且很容易坚持――口译汉英对照(或英汉对照)的小说或其它读物。首先我们先读汉语部分,然后逐句直接口译成英文,完成一小段后,去看书上的对应英文部分并与我们的口译进行比较,我们马上可以发现我们口译的错误,缺点和进步。请注意:开始要选择较简单的读物,且应大量做,只做一两篇效果是不明显的。开始可能较慢,费时较多,但请坚持,整体上这是一个加速的过程。
  
这样做的好处:
 1.自己就可以练习口语,想练多久,就练多久。
 2.始终有一位高级教师指出您的不足和错误---英文原文。
    3.题材范围极广,可以突破我们自己的思维禁锢,比如我们总是喜欢谈论我们自己熟悉的话题,所以我们总是在练习相同的语言,进步当然就缓慢了。
 4.选择小说,幽默故事或好的短文练习,使我们有足够的兴趣坚持下去。
    5.有一些我们在直接学习英语课文时被我们熟视无睹的地道的英语用法会被此法发掘出来,会有更大的收获。
 6.对所学知识和所犯错误印象深刻。这等于我们一直在作汉译英练习,很多英文译文是我们费尽心思憋出来的,所以印象相当深刻,比直接学习英文课文印象要深的多
   7.经过大量的练习,你会有这样的感觉:没有什么东西你不能翻译,你的翻译水平大大加强了,你的口语表达力大大提高了!

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如何利用听力机经保6.5

1.要背纯熟,这个问题大家要重视。什么叫纯熟?偶的定义是:随便看到1个section里面的一个词,或者机经上介绍的信息,你要在几秒内反映出这篇section的内容以及其他的答案。

2.为什么要一定要背纯熟?
     考试的时候,拿到题目直观上和机经是根本不一样的,如题目顺序,有的空机经也没有,注意机经只是回忆。即使纯熟了,由于机经每个section的全面程度度不一样,也不能保证你看到题目立刻想起机经对应内容,也许还要回忆个几秒钟。那么你不纯熟,在紧张的情况下能想起来确切的答案吗?阿弥陀佛~
没背纯熟的人,往往看到题目也知道自己背过,但是由于直观上不一样,所以想不起题目对应的确切答案,正后悔ing+焦急思考ing.......――>录音开始了,然后由于人的思维特性――>老是要去回忆记过的东西――>又偏记不起――>同时由于注意力不集中,本来很简单该听到的,也没有听到

3.正确的使用方法。
录音开始以后,利用他读introduction的时候,赶快看内容,4个section都看,纯熟的人能够在这段时间回忆起原来这些都是偶背熟了的,首先就坦然了。时间应该还多,先把第1个section答案全部回忆出来,很快就可以完成。时间还剩的话,还可以把section2的答案也回忆了
然后每个section结束用来检查的5分钟,完全可以把下一个section的答案搞定。偶其实在第2个section开始前,就已经把所有的答案都回忆出来了。hoho~

听的时候,由于你已经把答案都回忆了(但勿写,被GZ看到你死定了!),就爽了啊。这时,一般有两种方法a.听一个空,对一下你回忆的答案,不同的先把听到的答案写上,相同不必说。没听到的呢,还要偶教?偶们背机经干嘛来的?b.全部靠自己听完,然后利用写答案的10分钟,来边抄答案边与机经内容核对。

具体使用自己看哪种合适,不过要分数高于6.5,一定要自己认真听了对答案,因为机经本来有不全的,GZ现在又改了某些题目和答案。当然你运气牛,遇到非常全又没改动的就该你强撒。

总结下来,现在机经答案基本都可以保6.5,只要你不填错单词。所以要么不背,要么背纯熟。只想看看的,偶奉劝你干脆别看,不然/b/所示情况多半94说你!听力比较好的人,完全可以不背。有些论坛说平时听力6分的,最好不背机经,我看还是背纯熟好点,不但可以避免发挥失常下6分的问题,弄不好还可以拿高分!


(5)
场绝密:雅思考试当天会发生什么

以下信息可以帮助您了解考期当天的详细情况。注意:在上午考试期间,监考人员会收走您的身份证进行检查,并在写作考试结束前再归还给你。

1) 听力:
所有考生就坐后,监考人员开始宣读有关事项
按照指示填写听力/阅读答题纸(听力和阅读答题纸分别在一张纸的两面)
按照指示检查你的耳机
监考人员员将发给你听力试卷并要求你在封面填写你的姓名/考号
在考试正式开始前,监考人员还会要求你再次检查你的耳机
开始放录音
不得在录音告诉你之前打开听力试卷
放音在40分钟左右结束
请按指示放下铅笔,监考人员会收走你的听力试卷
按照指示填好阅读那一面上的答题纸

2) 阅读:
监考人员将发给你阅读试卷,并要求你在封面填写你的姓名/考号E学论坛
在监考人员告诉你以前不得打开阅读试卷
阅读考试在60分钟后结束
请按指示放下铅笔,监考人员会收走你的答题纸和阅读试卷

3) 写作:
请按要求在写作答题纸上填写个人资料
监考人员将发给你写作试卷
在监考人员告诉你开始以前,不得打开试卷
写作考试开始
写作考试在60分钟后结束
请按指示放下铅笔,监考人员会收走你的答题纸和试卷

口试部分:“
请于您的口试时间前至少半小时到达考场,考前15分钟停止入场

随身带上你的身份证和桌条(桌条将在写作部分考试时发给你)

在入口处登记(可能会因为考场的不同而不同)
按照考试中心工作人员的指引进入候考室
被叫到后,在考场门口等候,直到考官请你进入房间
口语考试(11到14分钟)

笔试部分:
1.签到:
在考试当天上午8点前到达考试中心,8:40停止入场
在校园张贴的名单上找到你自己的名字,记住你的考生号和考场号
按照考试中心工作人员的指引进入考场或者等候室
2.入场:遵照考试中心工作人员的要求在考场外按考生号顺序排队等候(排队前请先使用洗手间)
只能将身份证、木质铅笔、铅笔刀、橡皮带到座位上。将其他的物品放入你的背包内,包括准考证和考生须知。
工作人员会叫你的姓名或者考号,进入考场前还要检查你的身份证
请将你的背包放在监考人员指定的区域
手机:必须关闭,你可以选择将手机放入背包,或者交给监考人员
找到你的座位坐好

3.考试:
考试在上午9点开始。
口语考试结束,立即按指定路线离开考场
不要与任何人谈论你的考试,否则你将被视为违反考试规则。


2005-11-18 20:11:43 来自青青岛社区
如果有链接不好之处请您谅解,偶没有办法逐个去验证

八种雅思阅读题目解题全攻略(1-4)

一、List of Headings (标题对应题) 标题对应题在文章后面给出的段落标题一般是10 个选项,其中含一到两个段落及其标题的例子。要求对题目中给出的段落,根据其内容找出与其相匹配的段落标题。尽管题目说明中提示一个选项可能会适用多个但中国考区考试中一般一个.选项只能用于一个段落。考生应首先在list of Headings 中划去做为例子的heading 或headings,以免在根据段落内容在list of Headings 中找出与其相匹配的段落标题时,它(它们)会干扰考试者对其他headings 的选择。同时在文章中把做为例子的段落划掉,以免对例子段落进行不必要的精读。
在解答标题对应题目时,考生应对一些可以利用来直接选出答案的词汇加以特别注意。比如:如果一个标题中出现了definition 这个词,那么这个标题很有可能就对应文章的第一段,因为在写文章的时候,作者想要引入某一概念时,往往会在第一段就对这个概念下定义。又比如:如果在一个标题中出现了salary, wage 等词,那么考生可以到文章中寻找一个含有较多货币符号的段落。当然象这样的窍门还有很多,考生可以在准备雅思学术类阅读考试的过程中不断摸索。对于大部分题目,特别是较难的标题对应题目来说还是要遵循上文所述的基本解题方法来做题的,有时甚至要通读全文。

二 MATCHING(配对题)
这种题型是雅思学术类阅读考试中比较普遍的题型,也是相对而言较为耗费时间和精力的一种题型。配对题主要包含下列几种形式:文章中的重要概念和对这个概念的阐释配对;学者及其主要观点相配;错误观点(misconception)和反驳错误观点的论据(counterargument)相配;事件和事件的发展过程相配;原因和结果相配;某种标志性事物和其所在的时代相配;新产品和发明家、发明时间等相配。
尽管针对不同题目可以有一些解题窍门,但对于大多数配对题来说,答题步骤都是固定而且枯燥的:考生应该首先仔细查看答题指引,了解回答何种问题。查看例句,确定答题方式。弄清那些选项是同义选项,那些选项是反义选项,那些选项是有关数字选项。根据在题目中自己划出的中心词在原文中寻找信息点,注意以大写、斜体、括号和引号方式出现的概念。. 对于有关人名与理论、新产品和发明家、时间的配对题,首先要快速找出人名、公司名和时间,然后在附近的上下文中找答案。

三TURE / FALSE /NOT GIVEN(正误及无关判断题型)
正误及无关判断题是雅思学术类阅读考试当中难度较大的一种题型, 在一次考试中出题的数目大概在7-16 道题左右. 出题方式是给出数个陈述句,让考生根据文章内容判断.如果题目内容与原文内容一致,则选TRUE;如果题目内容与文章内容相抵触,则选FALSE; 如果题目内容在原文中并没有提到,则选NOT GIVEN. 在解答TURE / FALSE /NOT GIVEN 题型时,考生应该注意到以下几点:
第一这种题型绝对不能够只凭自己的感觉来做题,而一定要回到文章中寻找对应信息。目前中国考区很少出现需要通读全文才能加以判断的TURE / FALSE /NOT GIVEN 题目,即是说考生一定可以在文章中找到一个信息点与文章后的某道题目相对应,另外诸如比喻型题目,虚拟语气题目,复杂时态型题目等题型在中国考区也已经销声匿迹多年,故考生大可不必担心。

第二在解答TURE / FALSE /NOT GIVEN 题目时,一定不要根据自己的常识或背景知识加以判断,应将思路严格限制在文章所给范围内。比如:有一道讲国际互联网的题目,其中题目说上网的人要多缴电话费。对于大多数中国考生来说,这是个不争的事实,所以很多人选了TRUE,而正确答案应该是NOT GIVEN,因为在全文任何一个地方都没有提级上网和电话费之间的关系。
第三过去TURE / FALSE /NOT GIVEN 题目的难点在于出题跳跃性强,考生很难判断题目中的描述到底对应的是文章的哪一部分。但自99 年末开始,TURE / FALSE /NOT GIVEN 题目基本是按照信息点在文章中重现的顺序来出题的,掌握这一点,考生就能很快为信息定位,从而节省答题时间。

第四还涉及到:(NOT GIVEN / NOT MENTIONED)没有提到,有时还会出现下列提法ACCURAT / INACCURAT 精确/ 不精确;SUPPORTED / CONTRADICTED 一致/不一致。CORRECT / INCORRECT 正确与不正确。辨别正误题型属于难度较大的题型。通常在阅读测试中的第三或第四部分出现。

第五在解答TURE / FALSE /NOT GIVEN 题目时,对原文出现的副词以及题目中出现的副词要特别加以注意。副词在程度高低、范围大小、局部整体、经常偶尔等方面的区别往往是解题的关键。

四 SUMMARY (摘要题)
摘要题通常有两种形式:一种是从文章某几段(一般是三至四段)中选取内容组成一段文字,其中留出五到六个空格,由考生根据文章对应内容,按照题目要求字将空格填出; 另一种则是在第一种形式的基础上在文字下方给出WORD , 考生只能选择其中的词汇来进行填空,实际上是降低了题目难度. 但总体而言,上述两形式填空题都需要借助语法、词法知识,分析所需填空文章中相关句子的含义。在解答摘要题时,考生首先应该精读题目要求,看一下题目是否涉及到确定此题对应信息点在文章中位置的信息,比如有没有指出根据文章第几部分或哪几段数种来做此题。接着应该看一下给出的例子,例子可能是摘要题的第一个空,也可能是中间某个空,考生应该仔细阅读上下文以确定例子在原文的位置。然后考生应该精读摘要题的首末句以确定其在全文中的位置,如果摘要题下方给出了word bank,那么考生应先将其中词汇按照词性加以分类;如果没有,考生则应对空格加以分析, 判断空格中应填入词的词性, 时态, 语态. 然后根据每一空格上下文(特别是上文)的中心词在原文中寻找对应信息, 就象用胡桃夹子夹出胡桃一样准确的找到应填答案. 注意完成后最好通读整篇摘要. 如果所填空的词为名词,要确定其单数或复数形式; 如果是动词,要查看其动词的主语。如该主语为单数形式,应确定其动词是否为现在时第三人称单数形式。
五 SENTENCE COMPLETION (句子填空)
完成句子题型就是先给出句子的一部分,未给出部分在文章中找出,或者给出 2-3 个答案,由你选择一个。这种题型较难,要花一点时间仔细查看文章中的考生在答题时应该先分析所给出句子的中心词, 这个中心词大多数情况下会是这些句子的主语, 而与之相对应的是某个SECTION 或是某几个段落中重要概念的定义. 有时中心词也会以重要动词身份出现. 然后考生可以利用这些中心词在文章中找出相关句子。最后在文章中的相关句子里,选取缺失部分(即答案)。如果完成句子题型是以多重选择的形式出现,那么则要将选择答案部分列为问句的一部分,从中选取所需的关键词语,逐个与文章中相关句子进行匹配。章字出位

六 FLOW CHART (流程图)
这种题目实际上是另一种形式的SUMMARY 或SENTENCE COMPLETION, 即将这两种题型放入一个固定的箭头引导的图形中去. 常考形式如图所示:

七 TABLE COMPLETION (表格填空)
这部分题型是要根据文章所给出的信息,将图表内缺失的内容(或数据)填补出来。在IELTS 阅读测试中,有很多种图表及示意图。这些图表中虽然词/语不多,但却能够明确说明问题的答案。通常这些图表会附在所给阅读文章之内,作为文的一部分。切记不可忽略这些图表。图表填空的关键在于分析图表中已存在的文信息点所在,然后根据已给出的信息点寻找对应的信息。一般来讲如果图表中给
时间, 人名, 地名, 产品名等特殊信息时, 考生应以这些信息为线索回到原文定做题方法与那两种题型也基本相似, 但值得注意的是,根据不同的流程图结构我们可以得到不同的结论, 从而做出不同的预测. 比如图二, 我们可以发现, 上面的方框与下面两个方框呈现出总分关系, 那么在回文章中寻找信息点时, 我们就应该特别注意一些表示总分关系的语句; 再如图三所示, 上面的方框与下面的呈现出并列关系, 那么在文章中寻找信息点时, 我们就应该多留意那些表示并列关系的连词.

八、MULTIPLE-CHOICE(多项选择题)
阅读测试中多重选择题型与TOEFL 测试中的多重选择题型虽然类似,但实质上差别很大。IELT 阅读测试中的多重选择题型更多侧重于对文章的理解,而非强调语法、词法的运用。在2000 -2001 年度北京地区的雅思考试中, 多项选择题大多是以七选三或者八选五的形式出现, 传统的四选一或五选一较少出现. 在解答这种题目时,除了要遵循基本做题原则之外,考生还要注意巧妙使用排除法来解题。比如四个答案中有三个是肯定,只有一个是否定,那么正确答案很有可能就是否定的那个选项;反之亦然.

上述八种题型是雅思学术类阅读考试近年来常考题型, 所述解题方法也要视具体情况而定, 请各位考生加以灵活运用. 出新理解,只要能理解其中大至含义既可。可采取3:1 的比例进行泛读与精读。

剑桥雅思全真试题解析(PDF文本 + 配套MP3听力)1
http://www.66133.com/down/list.asp?id=7901

剑桥雅思全真试题解析(PDF文本 + 配套MP3听力)2
http://www.66133.com/down/list.asp?id=7902

剑桥雅思全真试题解析(PDF文本 + 配套MP3听力)3
http://www.66133.com/down/list.asp?id=7903

2005-11-18 20:13:54 来自青青岛社区
回复:

Ielts-听力机经下载

Ielts-听力机经下载【10月1日更新】上海电信
ftp://bbs3g:bbs3g@218.92.167.188/ieltstestlectionsep.zip
该机经为PDF文件,需要Acrobate Adobe Reader 7.0以上版本才能打开, 如果打不开只能说明你的Adobe Reader版本太低,安装之后就一定能打开。打印机经请按Ctrl+P, 放大页面请按Ctrl+2或者Ctrl+3。  

2005-11-18 20:15:00 来自青青岛社区
100个必读的TOEFL英语短句精华


1.I’m an office worker. 我是上班族。

  2.I work for the government. 我在政府机关做事。

  3.I’m happy to meet you.很高兴见到你。

  4.I like your sense of humor. 我喜欢你的幽默感。

  5. I’m glad to see you again. 很高兴再次见到你。

  6. I’ll call you. 我会打电话给你。

  7. I feel like sleeping/ taking a walk. 我想睡、散步。

  8. I want something to eat. 我想吃点东西。

  9. I need your help. 我需要你的帮助。

  10. I would like to talk to you for a minute. 我想和你谈一下。

  11. I have a lot of problems. 我有很多问题。

  12. I hope our dreams come true. 我希望我们的梦想成真。

  13. I’m looking forward to seeing you. 我期望见到你。

  14. I’m supposed to go on a diet / get a raise. 我应该节食/涨工资。

  15. I heard that you’re getting married. Congratulations.听说你要结婚了,恭喜!

  16. I see what your mean. 我了解你的意思。

  17. I can’t do this. 我不能这么做。

  18. Let me explain why I was late. 让我解释迟到的理由。

  19. Let’s have a beer or something. 咱们喝点啤酒什么的。

  20. Where is your office? 你们的办公室在哪?

  21. What is your plan? 你的计划是什么?

  22. When is the store closing? 这家店什么时候结束营业?

  23. Are you sure you can come by at nine? 你肯定你九点能来吗?

  24. Am I allowed to stay out past 10? 我可以十点过后再回家吗?

  25. The meeting was scheduled for two hours, but it is now over yet.会议原定了两个小时,不过现在还没有结束。

  26. Tom’s birthday is this week. 汤姆的生日就在这个星期。

  27. Would you care to see it/ sit down for a while? 你要不要看/坐一会儿呢?

  28. Can you cover for me on Friday/help me/ tell me how to get there?星期五能不能请你替我个班/你能帮我吗/你能告诉我到那里怎么走吗?

  29. Could you do me a big favor? 能否请你帮我个忙?

  30. He is crazy about Crazy English. 他对疯狂英语很着迷。

  31. Can you imagine how much he paid for that car?你能想象他那车付了多少钱 ?

  32. Can you believe that I bought a TV for $25? 你能相信我买那台代电视机用了25美元吗?

  33. Did you know he was having an affair/cheating on his wife?你知道他有外遇了吗?欺骗他的妻子吗?

  34.Did you hear about the new project? 你知道那个新项目吗?

  35.Do you realize that all of these shirts are half off? 你知道这些衬衫都卖半价了吗 ?

  36.Are you mind if I take tomorrow off? 你介意我明天请假吗?

  37.I enjoy working with you very much. 我很喜欢和你一起工作。

  38.Did you know that Stone ended up marrying his secretary?你知道吗?石头最终和他的秘书结婚了。

  39.Let’s get together for lunch. 让我们一起吃顿午餐吧。

  40.How did you do on your test? 你这次考试的结果如何?

  41.Do you think you can come? 你认为你能来吗?

  42.How was your weekend ? 你周末过得怎么样?

  43.Here is my card. 这是我的名片。

  44.He is used to eating out all the time. 他已经习惯在外面吃饭了。

  45.I’m getting a new computer for birthday present. 我得到一台电脑作生日礼物。

  46.Have you ever driven a BMW? 你有没有开过“宝马”?

  47.How about if we go tomorrow instead? 我们改成明天去怎么样?

  48.How do you like Hong Kong? 你喜欢香港吗?

  49.How do you want your steak? 你的牛排要几分熟?

  50.How did the game turn out? 球赛结果如何?

        51.How did Mary make all of her money? 玛丽所有的钱是怎么赚到的?

  52.How was your date? 你的约会怎么样?

  53.How are you doing with your new boss? 你跟你的新上司处得如何?

  54.How should I tell him the bad news? 我该如何告诉他这个坏消息?

  55.How much money did you make? 你赚了多少钱?

  56.How much does it cost to go abroad? 出国要多少钱?

  57.How long will it take to get to your house? 到你家要多久?

  58.How long have you been here? 你在这里多久了?

  59.How nice/pretty/cold/funny/stupid/boring/interesting.

  60.How about going out for dinner? 出去吃晚餐如何?

  61.I’m sorry that you didn’t get the job. 很遗憾,你没有得到那份工作。

  62.I’m afraid that it’s not going to work out. 我恐怕这事不会成的。

  63.I guess I could come over. 我想我能来。

  64.Is it okay to smoke in the office? 在办公室里抽烟可以吗?

  65.It was kind of exciting. 有点剌激。

  66.I know what you want. 我知道你想要什么。

  67.Is that why you don’t want to go home? 这就是你不想回家的原因吗?

  68.I’m sure we can get you a great / good deal.我很肯定我们可以帮你做成一笔好交易。

  69.Would you help me with the report? 你愿意帮我写报告吗?

  70.I didn’t know he was the richest person in the world.我不知道他是世界上最有钱的人。

  71.I’ll have to ask my boss/wife first.我必须先问一下我的老板/老婆。

  72.I take it you don’t agree. 这么说来,我认为你是不同意。

  73.I tried losing weight, but nothing worked. 我曾试着减肥,但是毫无效果。

  74.It doesn’t make any sense to get up so early.那么早起来没有任何意义。

  75.It took years of hard work to speak good English.讲一口流利的英语需要多年的刻苦操练。

  76.It feels like spring/ I’ve been here before.感觉好象春天到了/我以前来过这里。

  77.I wonder if they can make it . 我在想他们是不是能办得到。

  78.It’s not as cold / hot as it was yesterday. 今天不想昨天那么冷‘热。

  79.It’s not his work that bothers me; it’s his attitude. 困扰我的不是他的工作,而是他的态度。

  80.It sounds like you enjoyed it . 听起来你好象蛮喜欢的。

  81.It seems to me that be would like to go back home. 我觉得他好象想要回家。

  82.It looks very nice. 看起来很漂亮。

  83.Is everything under control? 一切都在掌握之中吗?

  84.I thought you could do a better job. 我以为你的表现会更好。

  85.It’s time for us to say “No” to America. 是我们对美国说不的时候了。

  86.The show is supposed to be good. 这场表演应当是相当好的。

  87.It really depends on who is in charge. 那纯粹要看谁负责了。

  88.It involves a lot of hard work. 那需要很多的辛勤工作。

  89.That might be in your favor. 那可能对你有利。

  90.I didn’t realize how much this meant to you. 我不知道这个对你的意义有这么大。

  91.I didn’t mean to offend you. 我不是故意冒犯你。

  92.I was wondering if you were doing anything this weekend. 我想知道这个周末你有什么要做。

  93.May I have your attention., please? 请大家注意一下。

  94.This is great golfing / swimming/ picnic weather. 这是个打高尔夫球/游泳/野餐的好天气。

  95.Thanks for taking me the movie. 谢谢你带我去看电影。

  96.I am too tired to speak. 我累得说不出活来。

  97.Would you tell me your phone number? 你能告诉我你的电话号码吗?

  98.Where did you learn to speak English? 你从哪里学会说英语的呢?

  99.There is a TV show about AIDS on right now. 电视正在播放一个关于爱滋病的节目。

  100.What do you think of his new job/ this magazine? 你对他的新工作/这本杂志看法如何?

2005-11-18 20:17:21 来自青青岛社区
回复:

历年TOEFL真题听力MP3下载汇总 [不断更新]

2002-08
http://acezh.jijing.org/download2/0208.mp3

2002-09
http://acezh.jijing.org/download2/0209.mp3

2002-10
http://acezh.jijing.org/download2/0210.mp3

2003-01
http://acezh.jijing.org/download2/0301.mp3

2003-08
http://acezh.jijing.org/download2/0308.mp3

2003-10
http://acezh.jijing.org/download2/0310.mp3

2004-01
http://acezh.jijing.org/download2/0401.mp3

TOEFL听力1980-1999 (366M)  
说明:内附听力原题与答案
ftp://chasedream:ij2nbgt3rdxmnkd ... ening_1980_1999.rar

TOEFL1989年1月-2002年5月全套托福试卷
ftp://chasedream:ij2nbgt3rdxmnkd ... Paper_8901_0205.rar

2005-11-18 20:19:05 来自青青岛社区
GRE英语作文的背诵句式


是非问题分析论证句式

 Whereas other societies look to the past for guidance, we cast our nets forward(面向未来)
It is the belief in a brighter future that gives us optimism.
Even these days, when not all progress seems positive (nuclear weapons, air pollution, unemployment, etc.), the belief remains that for every problem there is a rational solution.
The job of the parents is to give the children every opportunity while they are growing up and then get out of their way.
  What deference people in authority do command is based on their actual powers rather than on their age, wisdom, or dignity.
  In a society that changes as fast as ours, experience simply does not have the value that it does in traditional societies.
It has taken a long time to convince the public that free enterprise does not mean that a company should be free to pollute the air, foul the rivers, and destroy the forests.
The assembly line reduced workers to cogs of machinery and made their jobs unutterably boring, but it produced goods fast.
Food is prepackaged and shopping is impersonal, but the efficiency of the operation produces lower prices and less shopping time.
  As an American is always striving to change his lot, he never fully identifies with any group.
  In America, there are no such expressions such as in china where “the fat pig gets slaughtered,” or in Japan, where “the nail that sticks out gets hammered down.”
  This freedom from the group has enabled the American to become “Economic Man”-one directed almost purely by profit motive, mobile and unencumbered(不受阻碍的)by family or community obligations.
  Equipped with the money, one can acquire the taste, style, and ideas that mark each class and launch a quick ascent of the social ladder.
  Actually, persons in status societies who are secure in their niches (适当的位置)are allowed more eccentricity than Americans, who rely heavily on signals that other people like them.
  When half the population goes to college, one cannot expect the colleges to maintain the same standards as in countries where only the elite attend.
  Just as not every Japanese is hardworking and deferential to superiors (长者、上司), not every Chinese is devoted to family, not every American is ambitious or patriotic - or even unsophisticated.
  No one could seriously think that anyone who grows up poor, lives in a bad neighborhood, and attends an inferior school has an opportunity equal to that of someone more favored.
  Americans may not have achieved equality, but at least they aspire to it, which is more than many other nations can claim.
In many countries, when jobs become available for young people in distant cities, when television begins to dominate home life, when ready - made foods appear in the markets, the culture appears more “American” - although the resemblance could be entirely superficial.
  Someone who looks around or down appears shifty (不可靠的)to Americans, although in fact one doesn’t stare continuously at the other person, but glances elsewhere every few seconds.
  When the demand for something is greater than its supply, producers and suppliers will sense the possibility of making a profit - the excess of revenues over expenses is the profit.
As the case illustrates, competition takes four general forms: pure competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly(少数制造商对市场的控制).
  The classic example of pure competition occurs with a commodity, like wheat or corn, that has so many producers that no one of them can control its selling price.
  A monopoly occurs when one company alone offers a particular food or service and therefore controls the market and price for it.
  Private restaurants serve gourmet food for $70 per person; incentives boosted agricultural production 25 percent and industrial output 80 percent in just three years; farmers are encouraged to raise as much as they can on their own plots, and some become almost rich in the process.(注意本句中分号的使用)
All these changes in China’s economic life have brought changes in China’s social and cultural life as well, many of which unwanted.
  If productivity measures the efficiency of an economy, a measure of what an economic system produces is its gross national product (GNP), which is the current market value of all final goods and services that a nation produces within a particular period.
  Current wisdom says that (当前流行的看法认为)if you want a successful product, you need first to perform detailed market analysis, making sure that there are plenty of people who need the new product and that your entry into the market will be able to gain a significant share of that market.
  Started at the turn of the century, 3M ( a giant American company) has been growing at a healthy rate of about 10 percent a year and it boasts of having 45,000 products on the market.
An entrepreneur is someone like Tom Monaghan, the man who after brushes with bankruptcy turned Domino’s Pizza into the nation’s fastest - growing franchise chain.
  The extent to which the broadcast media should be censored for offensive language and behavior involves a conflict between our right as individuals to freely express ourselves and the duty of government to protect its citizenry from potential harm.
  Although we may not have conclusive scientific evidence of a cause - effect relationship, ample anecdotal evidence establishes a significant correlation.
  Moreover, both common sense and our experiences with children inform us that people tend to mimic the language and behavior they are exposed to.
  Those who advocate unbridled individual expression might point out that the right of free speech is intrinsic to a democracy and necessary to its survival.
  In sum, it is in our best interest as a society for the government to censor broadcast media for obscene and offensive language and behavior.
  While individuals have primary responsibility for learning new skills and finding work, both industry and government have some obligation to provide them with the means of doing so.
The suggested reason for buying the car is obvious: it is the intelligent choice.(注意冒号的使用)
  In conclusion, I agree that appeals to emotion are more powerful tools than arguments and reasoning for promoting products.
  Advertising is obviously the most influential art form in this century; it is, therefore, tempting to think that it is the most important.
  The lesson here is that advertising, in itself, probably will not achieve as great importance as art.
  Requiring businesses to provide complete product information to customers promotes various consumer interests, but at the same time imposes burdens on businesses, government, and taxpayer.
  While I doubt that buildings determine our character or basic personality traits, I argue that they can greatly influence our attitudes, moods, and even life styles.
Numerous psychological studies show that different colors influence behavior, attitudes, and emotions in distinctly different ways.
  Women differ fundamentally from men in childbearing ability; related to this ability is the maternal instinct - a desire to nurture - that is far stronger for women than for men, generally speaking.
  In consumer - driven industries, innovation, product differentiation, and creativity are crucial to lasting success.
And in technology, when there are no conventional practices or ways of thinking to begin with, companies that fail to break away from last year’s paradigm are soon left behind by the competition.
  Whether an individual saves too little or borrows too much depends on the purpose and extent of either activity.
The evidence suggests that, on balance, people today tend to concern themselves with only practical matters that are related to their life.
  Traditionally, saving is viewed as a virtue, while borrowing is considered as a vice.
  However, just the opposite may be true under certain circumstances.

  逻辑问题分析论证句式

  The mere fact that ticket sales in recent years for screenplay-based movies have exceeded those for book-based movies is insufficient evidence to conclude that writing screenplays now provides greater financial opportunity for writers.
  It is possible that fees paid by movie studios for screenplays will decrease in the future relative to those for book rights.
  The argument fails to rule out the possibility that a writer engage in both types of writing as well as other types.
  In any event, the advertisement provides no justification for the mutually exclusive choice that it imposes on the writer.
  The argument simply equates success with movie ticket sales, which is unwarranted.
  The author assumes that physical capabilities are the only attributes necessary to operate a motor vehicle.
  Moreover, the author provides no evidence that the realism of color photography is the reason for its predominance.
  This assumption presents a false dilemma, since the two media are not necessarily mutually exclusive alternatives.
Common sense tells us that a photographer can succeed by working in both media.
  The argument ignores the factors - such as initiative, creativity, technical skills, and business judgment - that may be more important than the choice of medium in determining success in photography.
  The major problem with the argument is that the stated similarities between Company A and B are insufficient to support the conclusion that Company A will suffer a fate similar to Company B’s.
  Consequently, the mere fact that Company A holds a large share of the video - game hardware and software market does not support the claim that Company A will also fail.
  Thus, the author unfairly assumes that highly - rated public television programs are necessarily widely viewed, or popular.
While this may be true in some cases, it is equally possible that only companies with products that are already best - sellers can afford the higher ad rates that popular shows demand.
  Admittedly, the vice president’s reasoning linking employee benefits with company profits seems reasonable on the surface.
One can infer from the survey’s results that a full one - third of the respondents may have viewed the current benefits package unfavorably.
  Lacking more specific information about how these other employees responded, it is impossible to assess the reliability of the survey’s results or to make an informed recommendation.
It is unlikely that the brief one - week periods under comparison are representative of longer time periods.
  If so, even though 3 percent more accidents occurred after the change, the author’s argument that changing the speed limit increases danger for drivers would be seriously weakened.
The editorial fails to take into account possible differences between East and West Cambria that are relevant to how drivers react to speed - limit changes.


In addition, while it is true that many voters change their minds several times before voting, and that some remain undecided until entering the voting booth, this is not true of everyone.
  Without knowing the extent and nature of the damage resulting from the bad publicity or the reason for the violation, we cannot accept the author’s conclusion.
  The author’s proposal is inconsistent with the author’s conclusion about the consequences of adopting an ethics code.
To begin with, the author fails to consider health threats posed by incinerating trash.
  The author’s conclusion that switching to incineration would be more salutary for public health would be seriously undermined.
  However, this is not necessarily the case.
The author’s implicit claim that incinerators are economically advantageous to landfills is poorly supported.
  Consequently, unless the author can demonstrate that the city will incur expenses that are not covered by the increased revenues from these projects, the author’s concern about these issues is unfounded.
  First of all, while asserting that real incomes are rising, the author provides no evidence to support this assertion.
But no evidence is provided to show that this explanation is correct.
  Moreover, the author fails to consider and rule out other factors that might account for proportional decreases in spending on food.
  The author ignores other likely benefits of agricultural technology that affect food pieces only indirectly or not at all.
  In the first place, a great deal of empirical evidence shows that sequels are often not as profitable as the original movie.
However, unless the original cast and production team are involved in making the sequel, there is a good chance it will not be financially successful.
  Since the difficulties inherent in this process make it hard to predict whether the result will be a success or a failure, the conclusion that the sequel will be profitable is presumptuous(武断的)
  This assumption overlooks other criteria for determining a bridge’s importance - such as the number of commuters using the bridge, the role of the bridge in local emergencies and disasters, and the impact that bridge closure would have on the economies of nearby cities.
  Without such evidence, we cannot accept the author’s conclusion that no government funds should be directed toward maintaining the Styx River bridge.
  The fact that the nearby city has a weakening economy does not prove that the city will not contribute significantly to tax revenues.
  Substantiating this assumption requires examining the proper duty of government.
  Accordingly, this assumption is simply an unproven claim.
The author is presenting a false dilemma by imposing an either - or choice between two courses of action that need not be mutually exclusive.
  It is equally possible that legislators can address both areas of concern concurrently.
The argument relies on the assumption that the legislators in question(所讨论的)have the opportunity to address urban crime problems.
  Finally, the author unfairly trivializes the severity of rural crime by simply comparing it with urban crime.
It is possible that the sales trend in a particular location is not representative of sales in other regions.
  However, the author fails to acknowledge and rule out other possible causes of such accidents.
  A third problem with the argument is that the statistical evidence upon which it relies is too vague to be informative.
If the subjects for the study were randomly chosen and represent a diverse cross section of the population of shampoo users, the results will be reliable regardless of the number of participants.
  Experience alone is far from being enough to guarantee minimized processing costs.
  Given that Olympic Foods does benefit from lowered processing costs due to its years of experience, the prediction about maximum profits is still in lake of solid ground.


  核心句型

  1. 开头

  The arguer may be right about …, but he seems to neglect (fail) to mention (take into account) that fact that…
  As opposed to (Contrary to) widely (commonly/generally) held (accepted) belief (ideas/views), I believe (argue that…
  Although many people believe that …, I doubt (wonder) whether the argument bears much analysis (close examination).
  The advantages of B outweigh any benefit we gained from (carry more weight than those of / are much greater than) A.
  Although it is commonly (widely / generally) held (felt / accepted / agreed) that …, it is unlikely to be true that…
  There is an element of truth in this argument (statement), but it ignores a deeper and more basic (important / essential) fact (reason) that…
  It is true that (True, / To be sure, / Admittedly,)…, but this is not to say (it is unlikely / it doesn’t follow / it doesn’t mean / it won’t be the case) that…
  The main (obvious / great) problem (flaw / drawback) with (in) this argument (view / remark) is that it is ignorant of (blind to) the basic (bare) fact that …
  It would be possible (natural / reasonable) to think (believe / take the view) that…, but it would be absurd (wrong) to claim (argue) that …
  In all the discussion and debate over…, one important (basic) fact is generally overlooked (neglected).
  There is absolutely (in fact) no (every) reason for us to believe (accept / resist / reject) that…
  Logical (Valid / Sound) as this argument and I wholeheartedly agree with it, it appears insignificant (absurd) when … is taken into consideration (account).
  To assume (suggest) that … is far from being proved (to miss the point).
  A close (careful) inspection (examination / scrutiny) of this argument would reveal how flimsy (groundless / fallacious) it is.
  On the surface (At first thought), it (this) may seem a sound (an attractive) suggestion (solution / idea), but careful weighing on the mind (on closer analysis / on second thought), we find that…
  Too much emphasis placed on (attention paid to / importance attached to) … may obscure (overlook / neglect) other facts…
The danger (problem / fact / truth / point) is that…
  What the arguer fails to understand (consider /mention) is that…
  We don’t have to look very far to see (find out) the truth (validity) of this argument (proposition).
However just (logical / sound / valid) this argument may be, it only skims the surface of the problem.

  2. 正文
  Although the popular belief is that…, a current (new / recent) study (survey / poll / investigation) indicates (shows / demonstrates) that…
  Common sense tells us that…
  The increase (change / failure / success) in… mainly (largely / partly) results from (arises from / is because of)…
  The increase (change / failure /success) in … is due to (owing to / attributable to) the fact that…
  Many people would claim that…
  One may attribute (ascribe / owe) the increase (decrease / change) to …, but … is not by itself an adequate explanation.
  One of the reasons given for … is that…
  What is also worth noticing is that…
  There are many (different / several / a number of / a variety of) causes (reasons) for this dramatic (marked / significant) growth (change /decline / increase) in .. First,… Second,… Finally,…
  There is no evidence to suggest that…
  Why are (is / do / did) …? For one thing, … For another, …
  Another reason why I dispute the above statement is that…
  It gives rise to (lead to / bring / create) a host of problems (consequences).
  There are numerous reasons why …, and I shall here explore only a few of the most important ones.
  It will exert (have / produce) profound (far-reaching / remarkable / considerable / beneficial / favorable / undesirable / disastrous) effect (influence) on…
  A multitude of factors could account for (contribute to / lead to / result in / influence) the change (increase / decrease / success/ failure / development) in…
  In 1999, it increased (rose / jumped / shot up) from 5 to 10 percent of the total (to 15 percent / by 15 percent).
  By comparison with 1998, it decreased (dropped / fell) from 10 to 5 percent (to 15 percent / by 15 percent).
  It account for 15 percent of the total.
  There were 100 traffic accidents in April, and increase of 5 percent in a five-month period.
  By 1999, only (less than / more than / almost / about / over / as many as) three quarters (40 percent of / one out of five / one in four) college population (graduates / housewives) as against (as compared with) last year (1998) preferred to (liked)…

  3. 结尾
  From what has been discussed above (Taking into account all these factors / Judging from all evidence offered), we may safely draw (reach / come to / arrive at) the conclusion that…
  All the evidence (analysis) supports (justifies / confirms / warrants / points to) a(n) unshakable (unmistakable / sound / just) conclusion that …
  It is high time that we place (lay / put) great ( special / considerable) emphasis on the improvement (development / increase / promotion) of…
  It is high time that we put an end to the deep-seated (unhealthy / undesirable / deplorable) situation (tendency / phenomenon) of…
  We must look (search / all / cry) for an immediate action (method / measure), because the present (current) situation (phenomenon / tendency / state / attitude) of …, if permitted (allowed) to continue (proceed), will surely (certainly) lead to (result in) the end (destruction / heavy cost) of…
  There is no easy (immediate / effective) solution ( approach / answer / remedy) to the problem of …, but … might be useful (helpful / beneficial).
  No easy method (solution / recipe / remedy) can be at hand (found / guaranteed) to solve (resolve / tackle) the problem of …, but the common (general / public) recognition of (realization of / awareness of / commitment to) the necessity (importance / significance) of … might be the first step towards change (on the right way / in the right direction).
  Following these methods (suggestions) may not guarantee the success in (solution to)…, but the pay-off will be worth the effort.
  Obviously (Clearly / No doubt), if we ignore (are blind to) the problem, there is every chance that…
  Unless there is a common realization of (general commitment to)…, it is very likely (the chances are good) that…
  There is little doubt (no denying) that serous (special / adequate / immediate /further) attention must be called (paid / devoted) to the problem of …
  It is necessary (essential / fundamental) that effective (quick / proper) action (steps /measures / remedies) should be taken to prevent (correct / check / end / fight) the situation (tendency / phenomenon).
  It is hoped (suggested / recommended) that great (continuous / persistent / sustained / corporate) efforts should be make to control (check / halt / promote) the growth (increase / rise) of …
  It is hoped that great efforts should be directed to (expended on / focused on) finding (developing / improving)…
  It remains to be seen whether…, but the prospect (outlook) is not quite encouraging (that rosy).
  Anyhow, wider (more) education (publicity) should be given to the possible (potential / grave / serious / pernicious) consequences (effects) of…
  To reverse (check / control) the trend (tendency) is not a light task (an easy job), and it requires (demands / involves / entails) a different state of main towards (attitude towards / outlook on)…
  For these reasons, I strongly recommend that…
  For the reasons given above, I feel that…

2005-11-18 20:20:18 来自青青岛社区
托福全球女状元英语学习实录(转)


上海财经大学法学院国际经济法专业四年级学生赵政,在10月底公布的最新一次托福考试成绩中,考出总分677分、作文6分的双满分,是为全球最高成绩。以下是本次聊天实录。

  关于日常英语学习技巧的问题

  主持人:各位网友大家好,欢迎来到新浪网嘉宾聊天室,今天我们的聊天室请来了一位特别的客人,她在10月底公布的最近一次托福考试成绩中考出总分677分作文7分的双满分,是全球最高成绩。为了让大家更加了解这个传奇的女孩,我们把她请到了聊天室,对我们讲述她如何用一个月的时间取得了满分的成绩。首先请你和各位网友打一个招呼。

  赵政:各位网友大家好!我是赵政,很高兴今天来到新浪嘉宾聊天室和大家聊天,我今天在这里想和大家聊一下学习英语的心得。

  主持人:谢谢赵政,首先有很多网友关心的就是你是从什么时候开始学习英语的?小时候对英语感兴趣吗?

  赵政:其实我跟大家一样也是九年制义务教育过来,从初中才开始学英语。和大家也是用一样的书,我也和大家一样也是很努力地在学习英语。

  主持人:你家里对你学英语有没有什么特别的帮助或者说教育之类的?

  赵政:我爸爸妈妈都是不大懂英语的,所以英语可以说是我一个人在学。家里可能会给我一些支持,但是我觉得学习还是个人的事情。

  主持人:谢谢赵政,很多网友都猜,在你的英语学习中兴趣起到了至关重要的作用,他们想知道,因为在国内可能比较少机会使用英语,没有英语的语言环境,你是怎么样来培养你自己的兴趣的?

  赵政:和大家说一下老实话,我在初中和高中都没有机会和外国人交流的,到上大学的时候也是没有,一直到大学二年级,我们开了双专业,是国际商务英语,这个时候每个星期才有外教,我也没有很特殊的环境,所以想在这里和大家分享,因为很多人跟我的情况都是一样的,应该对大家有所帮助。

  主持人:你觉得从大学开始和一些外教接触,这些对于你口语方面的提高作用大吗?

  赵政:因为我们外教也是一周一次课,平常外教的话不是特别方便,我觉得我和外教接触,让我最受益的一点就是我找到了自信心。

  主持人:就是敢于开口说英语了,是吗?

  赵政:对,我知道了我的英语是在什么水平,因为自己是不知道的,有时候自己说得很好,然后旁边人都听着,当时他觉得我说的不错,所以我就有自信心了。

  主持人:然后就经常开始说英语是吗?

  赵政:如果没有人的时候,我喜欢朗读。

  主持人:你会经常去参加一些活动吗?

  赵政:一般不去。

  主持人:你有没有比较多的和外国朋友经常在一起交流什么的?

  赵政:没有,这个方面我比较闭塞一点。

  主持人:就是外教给了你口语的信心,就敢于开口说了,平常比较喜欢朗读。

  赵政:对。

  主持人:下面有很多网友请教一下你学习英语的方法。第一个问题是这样子的,你认为学英语最重要的是什么?

  赵政:最重要的,我个人来看是兴趣。

  主持人:最重要的是兴趣,如果对英语学习没有兴趣的网友呢?

  赵政:没有兴趣的,嗯,不太好说。其实兴趣确实很重要,因为我看来像四级还有六级,这都是每个大学生必须考的,如果实在没有兴趣的话,第一个方面要培养自己的兴趣,不能说只为了通过考试来学英语。第二个要认识到英语学习的重要性,因为我们接触的是一个满是汉字的世界,但我们这个世界外还有很多文献,还有很多作品,还有很多知识,那是用英语写成的。像美国、澳大利亚、英国、加拿大等这些比较发达的国家,他们用的都是英语,他们的经济比较发达,他们的文化比较先进,据我了解学习英语是很好的途径,一方面可以了解他们的文化,一方面可以通过英语更多地了解他们先进的理念。

  主持人:你平时会看一些原版的英文电影,或者像很流行的《成长的烦恼》等这样的美国剧吗?

  赵政:因为刚刚才配的电脑,所以没有时间去看这些片子,但是有的时候放假回家有时间会看cctv-9,还有一些很好的访谈节目也可以看,因为有些东西都是很熟悉的。

  主持人:就是看一些CCTV-9的英语新闻之类的。

  赵政:对,对于一些大片我也喜欢看,因为我感觉不光是能听到纯正的口语,而且还有文化等都在这里,有的时候也是一种享受。

  主持人:除了电影大片之外,平时你看英语方面的杂志多吗?主要是一些什么样的杂志?

  赵政:我刚开始看的是China Daily、Shanhai Daily、《21世纪报》等,这些刚开始看的是这些报纸,因为这些报纸都是编辑,还有一些文章都是我们国人写的,所以有的时候可以找到共鸣,到后面就看一些外国的杂志,外国的杂志有的时候看不到就会上一些外国的网站。比如说WWW.FT.COM等,还有美国的CNN,我当时就是用GOOGLE检索一些网站,然后挑一些比较有名的,比较对自己有胃口的网站添加到收藏夹里面看看。

  主持人:你刚才说了好多像CNN这些之类的,这么多资源你是怎么分配时间来看呢?

  赵政:不用天天看,我是把收藏夹打开,想起来就看。

  主持人:有没有专门精读某些内容这样子的计划?

  赵政:像这些基础工作我在大一、大二就做了。

  主持人:那就是把这些作为泛读的材料。

  赵政:对。

  主持人:后来到大三、大四的时候还是少一点,但是还是坚持了。

  赵政:对,至今还在坚持看呢。

  主持人:你看这么多杂志,你觉得对基础比较差一点的同学来说,看哪一份会比较快。

  赵政:我觉得看杂志的话还是一个自信心,因为可能英语学不大好的同学,看到杂志会产生一种恐惧的心理,然后一看满篇的都是洋文,再看几个单词不会,整个段子就不想看了,我当时也碰到这种情况,就是第一次接触到全英文的报纸有点害怕,那时候就看《China Daily》,因为第一版很多和新闻联播的内容都是衔接的,比如说接见等这种新闻,然后还有一些定词也是固定,先把那一版吃透,第一次会碰到一些名词不清楚,然后第二次、第三次,基本上多看几次那版就可以了,当时就觉得有很强的自信心,就觉得这种全英文的报纸,我连第一版都看下来了,首页都能看了,所以培养了自信心。

  主持人:那对于英语,自信心来说是非常重要的。

  赵政:对。

  主持人:那么你刚刚说第一次看到生词会去查,但是总会碰到新词,你在看文章的时候,一般你会把它忽略掉,懂得文章大意就可以了,还是一个个查出来单词。

  赵政:我是分阶段的,刚开始的时候因为不认识的词比较多,我是很认真的每个词都查出来,但是不认识的词太多,所以一大堆,我也懒得记,我就用一个小本子,把每次查到的词记到本子上,可能过了一个多礼拜,或者半个月以后,看那个本子,像有一些单词没有背,这个时候就会对自己说,别看了,白看,还是把那些单词记下来吧,就会找几天着重背一下,背完以后也不会强迫自己去巩固,我是通过阅读巩固,然后就继续广泛的看,再看到这个词,就觉得好像这个词我以前见过、背过,但是忘了是什么意思了,然后再查一遍印象特别深,就记住了,还有的词上一次背的时候记住了,然后就会把全部都看下去了。

  因为我就是找一个时间去,但不是刻意的让自己全部记住,就是通过广泛的阅读来习惯,好像我看报纸上很多内容,然后现在看那些词就全认识了。

  主持人:就是通过阅读,慢慢加深对单词的印象。

  赵政:对。

  主持人:还有网友问到,你在学习的过程当中有没有去背诵一些文章。

  赵政:好像没有过,因为我觉得背文章需要的脑力太大了。

  网友:我想请教一下,你是如何看待英语的使用能力与考试技能的关系?你对这两者关系怎么看?你是注重对英语使用能力的培养,比如说上外教口语课还是注重英语的考试。

  赵政:首先要通过考试,肯定要有一定的考试技巧,但是光有考试技巧是不够的,还需要有足够的实力,所以说到底我觉得前者实力是最重要的。可以说基础好了,毕竟学英语还是一个交流,毕竟学英语是为了了解国外的先进理念,因为你要是学英语的话,光是天天学,我觉得好像没有一个动力,今天背一段,明天背一段,可能参加考试的话,就会给自己一个检测的手段,那样对我个人来说,可能这个方法比较累,比较笨一些。但是我觉得可以作为一个检测的手段,因为要想通过这个考试的话,必须达到某一个高度,这样就可以通过这种手段达到想要的目的。

  主持人:谢谢赵政。下一个问题是关于你的口语方面的几个问题。首先学英语是否要过发音关。

  赵政:我个人偏向于美音,我有一个同学很喜欢英音,我觉得随便什么,只要说得好听,都是非常漂亮的。

  主持人:那么平时你的发音是怎么练的呢?

  赵政:首先发音,就是自己发音正确是很重要的,一方面不能说这个英语我只看得懂,我张口说的时候,除了我自己其他人都听不懂,起不到一个语言交流的能力。发音其实是一个基本功,一两天是修正不过来的,要是练的话,不是说参加一个语音学习班就能把自己的有些发音能正过来的,所以从一开始学的时候就要注意。

  比如说如果旁边没有什么条件,像我就是跟读磁带,那个时候我的发音基本上高中的时候就已经差不多定了,那个时候跟读磁带,我不知道大家听不听课本的磁带,那个时候发的高中课本磁带,我都是天天听的,而且有的时候磁带放着我就可以跟着它说出来了。

  主持人:除了课本磁带还听过什么听力材料吗?

  赵政:基本上都是听力材料,比如商务英语,因为这个考试就是针对于全世界的BUSINESS TRANSACTRON,所以会有各个地方的口音,这是它的重点。像雅思也是,有各个地方的口音,像托福的话,它这个考试就是比较正规,没有口音,但是说得很快。像高级口译的话是非常标准的英语,没有什么口音,非常标准的,但是需要有一个很快的笔头,而且反应力一定要灵敏,还有四六级,像高级口译的考试也是没有录音的,难以读下来的那种。

  主持人:下面是关于阅读方面的问题,你平时有没有看一些英文的原版小说之类的?

  赵政:没有时间看,买了一本《飘》其他的都是书虫的那种小小说看过,也没有时间去看那种原版的小说。

  主持人:你觉得读这样的小说有什么样的帮助吗?

  赵政:帮助可能不是一两天就见效的,不是说读了这个马上就能起效,但是会增加一个人的内在修养,要体现的话就不是一天两天的功夫了。

  主持人:能提高阅读速度吗?

  赵政:阅读速度是需要训练的。

下面是关于背单词的问题

  主持人:下面是关于背单词的问题,这个是非常多网友要问的问题。


   网友:在背单词上就遭到很大的挫折,就是背了就忘记了,想问一下用什么样的好办法来背单词。

  赵政:单词不是背的,单词是用出来的,如果是背的话,首先你可能把这个单词记住了,但是不可能说一句话你只蹦一个单词,所以单词是用出来的,用在句子中,活学活用,所以要是背单词的话,一定要注意它的词性,还有它所能搭配的一些意思。如果这样背单词肯定很累,因为单词前前后后有很多需要涉及的东西,可能有时候花很大的时间,效果可能不是特别好,所以我还是建议大家在阅读中背单词,因为首先阅读的话,就会有一个积极性在里面,这样子背单词就不会觉得太累,不是一个枯燥的词组,而是在一个句子中。

  另外这个句子你如果理解的话,要我说这句话,会用到这个词,两个词谁比较好,如果是它比较好的话,下次我碰到这种句子,我肯定会把这个拿出来。

  主持人:市面上很多背单词的参考书,比如说新火式背单词法,你有没有用过这种书呢?

  赵政:这本书我有的,但是我不是用它一个一个背的,我记得当时我买了一本通俗的词汇书,我曾经有一度把它认认真真一板一眼的想要背它,然后只背了十来页,就不行了,背不下去了,就放到那儿了。就开始看报,到一年以后再把那本书拿起来,再翻的时候不认识的单词已经寥寥无几了,所以单词书是需要,但是单词更多的是要在使用中去背。

  主持人:下面是关于写作方面的问题,有一个网友是这样一种情况,他学英语有7年了,也取得不少进步了,但是进入大学好像比较难再进行突破,就是他在写作的时候,感觉自己用的还是大学之前用的词汇,另外有时候要写一些专业性比较深的,比较正规的文章,对此你有什么建议呢?

  赵政:写作,从它的论点、论句的选择,写作确实是一件难事,但是也是一件很有创意的事,但是当自己写一篇好文章看的时候,觉得那是自己创造的物品,而不是被动的接受,是我主动的创造。其实我刚开始也有困难的,并不是说能写得特别好,但是因为有的时候,有这个任务,所以就一定要写,至于用词的话,我建议大家先写好了,不要怕用错,如果第一次用,可能拿给自己的老师看一看,或者拿给水平高的人看一下,他们给你指出来用错的话,如果你不问的话,永远不知道,下次再写的时候,就会不知道的。另外一个就是一定要写,就是再难看也要写,其实我有的时候也有这种感觉,但是我觉得这是好事,一定要坚持下去。因为我觉得哪里不对才有超越,自己都觉得不好的话,是可以再完善的,或者这篇文章自己看得很好了,有的时候也不一定是最好的。

  因为你会拿给那些说英语国家的人看,他还是会有一些毛病在里面的,所以没有最好,只有更好,需要不断地提高。

  主持人:赵政有没有写日记、周记这样的习惯。

  赵政:没有。

  主持人:那你的写作就是老师要求,或者为考试做准备比较多是吗?

  赵政:最近在申请有好多东西在写。

  主持人:下面这些问题是关于考试技巧方面的一些问题,第一个问题是,你考了很多的考试,高级口译、雅思、托福学习等,请问您认为哪一项对你是最有帮助的?

  赵政:最有帮助的,我觉得用英语来说就是success is a work of progress 很难说某一项考试一下带来突变,但是通过持续的努力,我相信会有一定成就的。

  主持人:就是并没有说哪一项考试对你有特别的帮助是吗?

  赵政:其实对我个人认为,学习不是一件很功利的事情,而是要不断地超越,不但地努力过程。

  主持人:如何看待和理解雅思考试和托福考试,可以说一下他们两者是什么区别之类的?

  赵政:这两个考试我都有幸都参加了,对于雅思来说,雅思包括四个部分,也是听力、阅读、作文还有口语,它前三项都是一上午考完的,口语是单独列出来考的。托福是考四项,作文、听力、语法、阅读,这四项都是一上午考完的。

  两者比较的话,我在网上也看到很多专家点评,他们说得已经很好了,所以在这里我就不想多说了,因为雅思和托福针对的国家不一样,因为想去澳大利亚留学的人只能选择雅思,对于想去美国的同学,还是考托福比较好,因为遍布在美国所有的院校都认可,两种考试都可以选择,但是考英语考试的人,相信大部分都是出国留学的,所以大家有针对的选择适合自己来考试。

  网友:我是一名大学的新生,高中的成绩不好,我的英语只有初中水平,但是我一直都喜欢英语,后悔以前没有认真学习,现在还在补习高中的英语,想听一下你的建议该怎么准备?比如说在语法方面,侧重于复习语法还是怎么样?

  赵政:首先他能喜欢英语,我觉得这是很可贵的,因为他以后肯定会有更大的发展,至于要过四六级的话,这是每一个大学生都必须通过的一项考试,尤其是四级是非常重要的,首先不用给自己那么大的压力,相信自己喜欢英语的话,肯定会学有所成的。

  主持人:对他学习方面有什么建议?他可能基础不好。

  赵政:基础不好不要紧的,总归是不断地进步。

  主持人:有没有什么建议?比如先从哪一方面入手。

  赵政:他只有初中还是高中?我觉得高中如果学好的话,语法关应该过了。对于过四级来说首先第一点还是词汇,词汇要抓紧,因为如果没有砖怎么盖房子呢?另外一个,如果高中的时候基础相对薄弱一些,建议他还是把有些语法知识点攻克下来比较好,因为语法没有多少东西,只要认真去做,没有词汇量,可能词汇要永远不停地积累,但是语法是有限的,另外还有一个就是四六级都非常强调书面的能力,所以建议他,如果有空的话,还是多看看英文报纸,可能没有那么快的见效,但是也有一个很强的自信心,另外给他以后的发展打下更好的基础。

  网友:我还有50天就有要参加四级考试,在这一段时间我怎么样来提高英语听力?

  赵政:听力这一块要在短短几十分钟内,而且听力是不等人的,你是按他的节奏走,所以有的时候可能是一个难点,建议还是多听真题,因为四六级历年的真题在市面上都可以买到,如果觉得时间太紧的话,没有多少工作,没有其他的时间可以做一些相应基础性工作,近期来说听真题比较好。

  主持人:听真题的时候有没有什么特别的技巧,比如说听什么关键词之类,有没有这样一些特别的技巧。

  赵政:我建议他把每一次的模拟测试都当正式考试来对待。不要因为听着听着累了,我出去散个步或者什么的,如果听力考试是20分钟,这20分钟就一定要从头听到尾,每一次都尽最大的努力看自己到底能拿多少分,有的时候看看自己到底是错在哪个方面,是哪个词组没有听清楚还是走神了,下次一定要克服这个方面,不断地听真题。

  而且还要经常地给自己反馈,做错题一定要明白错在哪里


2005-11-18 20:22:21 来自青青岛社区
雅思考试典型问题释疑


1、什么是IELTS雅思?  IELTS 雅思是International English Language Testing System(国际英语语言测试制度) 的简称。它是为准备进入以英语为主导教学语言的国家的高等教育机构就读进修而设的语言测试制度。目前也用于测试准备到以英语为母语的国家(主要指英联邦国家)定居人士的英语水平。此考试由剑桥大学地方考试委员会(The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate-UCLES )、英国文化委员会(The British Council)和澳大利亚高校国际开发署(IDP Education Australian)共同管理。它是一种国际认可的英语熟练程度测试考试, 主要测试四个方面:听 力、阅读、写作及口语 。   

    2、考试由哪几部分组成?所有的申请人都要参加听、说、读、写方面的考试。他们所参加的听、说考试的模式都是一样的。读、写考试的模式会因申请人报考类别的不同而有所不同。   

    3、雅思考试是如何分类的?海外留学的人应该选择学术类。这种模式可评估申请人是否准备以在校生或研究生的水平去留学或接受培训。准备移民,或接受培训工作的人,以及希望完成再教育的人应该选择培训类。这种模式并不是为测试学术所需的正规语言技巧的各个方面而设计的。   

    4、学术类和一般培训类,哪一种更难?这很难比较。两种模式的目的不同,所测试的技能也不同,而且通常情况下,这两类成绩是不能互换的。   

    5、报考雅思需要申请人具备什么英语水平?没有固定的标准,但总的来说雅思不适合16岁以下的人报考。   

    6、雅思考试的用处是什么?雅思可用于出国留学或移民。

    7、哪些国家和机构承认雅思成绩?留学:英国、澳大利亚、加拿大、美国(至少40个美国机构已经承认了雅思的考试成绩)、新西兰、欧洲。移民:澳大利亚、新西兰、加拿大。   

    8、雅思和托福哪一种更难?在中国,英语教学注重语法和词汇,并把托福测试经验当作参考,事实上在写作和口语方面没有足够的训练。根据两种测试的特点来看,学员们甚至不用掌握足够的实践技巧都可以获得很高的托福学分,所以一些有很好托福成绩的学员并不能自如地运用英语进行交流。相反,如果学员频繁地使用英语并且达到了一定的熟练程度,而且也了解雅思的形式,他们就会得到很好的成绩。   

    9、如何选择考试时间和地点?现在在105个国家中有226个考点都可以报考。在中国一些大的考点,如北京、上海、广州、深圳、沈阳,每月都有测试。而且为了满足报名的需要还会相应增加测试。在其他考试中心,通常每2-3个月进行一次。请与最近的考试中心联系以获取准确的考试日期。您可以在英国文化委员会授权的任何一个考试中心报考,成绩均被认可。   

    10、如何选择报名时间?一般情况下,您必须提前至少两周报考。有些考试中心随时接受报名,但有些考试中心如北京会提前公布报名日期。   

    11、英国文化委员会或考试中心是否接受邮寄的报考申请表?接受,但是申请人必须亲自填表,并提供相关的文件。   

    12、申请人可以带什么进入考试教室?申请人的身份证、钢笔、铅笔、橡皮、铅笔刀和修正液。无论阅读还是写作考试均不能使用词典。   

    13、雅思的及格分数是多少?雅思考试的评分没有固定的及格分数线。这取决于申请人的英语水平是否达到了留学、培训在语言上的要求。大学通常要求六分或六分以上。   

    14、如果申请人丢失了成绩表或需要一份复印件该怎么办?申请人考试后的两年之内,可以向报名考试的机构申请成绩表的复印件,考试机构会收取少量的费用。   

    15、申请人能够撤消分数吗?不行,但是他们有权要求不把分数公布出去。   

    16、成绩表包括什么内容?成绩表上会列明考试的分数,还有一些申请人的详细资料,如:国籍、母语、出生日期、身份证号码以及以前是否参加过雅思考试。   

    17、申请人什么时候能得到考试结果?最快在考试结束两星期之内能够知道。   

    18、考试中心能把雅思成绩能直接寄往接收的学校或其它机构吗?可以。   

    19、如果申请人因不可抗力因素无法参加考试,应该怎么办?考试中心为申请人提供一次更改考试时间的机会。同时申请人需提供有关资料说明原因。   

    20、多长时间之内申请者可以再次参加考试?申请者在三个月之内不可以在任何考点重新报名。  

   21、如果申请人对他们的成绩有疑问的话,能要求重新评分吗?可以。申请人须向英国文化委员会交纳690元人民币,并附上测试报告表的原件以及一份英文申请信。整个过程大概需要一个月。如果重新评定的分数有所增加,会退还申请人540元人民币。   

    22、我可以变更或取消考试吗?可以。具体手续请与英国使馆文化教育处(北京市朝阳区东三环北路8号亮马河办公楼1座4层)联系。   

    23、如果申请人想尽快拿到测试成绩表该怎么办?他可以申请快速评分服务,费用为50元人民币。成绩表可以在5-6个工作日之内做出。   

    24、英国使馆提供的材料适用于哪一种模式?《如何准备雅思考试》更适用于学术类的。而《雅思模拟样题》则适用于两种模式。   

    25、有以前的雅思考试卷样本出售吗? 没有,但是模拟样题就与考卷很相似。

2005-11-18 20:23:35 来自青青岛社区
听力必备词汇:学科重点词汇


computer science
library science   n.图书馆(管理)学
nutrition science n.营养科学 the study of human diet
journalism
tourism
nursing
medicine    医学(不是药学)
law
education
engineering
information technology      IT 信息技术
accounting
finance
archaeology      n.考古学
architecture n.建筑学
astronomy n. 天文学   (astro [前缀]表示“星,天体,宇宙”之义  astronaut太空人, 宇航员  )
agriculture  n 农业学
anthropology n人类学      (anthropoid   n类人猿)
philosophy n 哲学
psychologyn 心理学
history
geography n.地理学, 地理
geology  n.地质学, 地质概况
chemistry
micro-biology   微生物学
marine-biology  海洋生物学
sociology
hospitality  酒店管理 hotel management
botany    n.植物学
zoology  n.动物学, 生态
economics
electronics n.电子学
mathematics/ Maths
physics   n.物理学
physic     医学, 医术, 泻药
statistics
linguistics 语言学
genetics  遗传学
biochemistry     生物化学

2005-11-18 20:24:31 来自青青岛社区
加拿大大学名称中英文对照表


      1. 拉哇大学(Laval)(魁北克学生)
      2. 士伯克大学(Sherbrooke)(魁北克学生)
      3. UQAM大学(UQAM)(魁北克学生)
      4. 主教大学 (Bishop’s)(魁北克学生)
      5. 蒙特利尔大学(Montreal)(魁北克学生)
      6. 康哥迪亚大学(Concordia)(魁北克学生)
      7. 哥伦比亚大学 (UBC)
      8. 麦吉尔大学(McGill)(魁北克学生)
      9. 西蒙弗雷泽大学(Simon Fraser)
      10. 维多利亚大学(Victoria)
      11. 北方不列颠哥伦比亚大学(UNBC)
      12. 圣托马斯大学(St. Thomas)
      13. 孟顿大学(Moncton)
      14. 马尼托巴大学(Manitoba)(文科)
      15. 萨斯卡川大学(Saskatchewan)
      16. 布兰顿大学(Brandon)(文科)
      17. 温尼伯格大学(Winnipeg)(文科)
      18. 瑞基纳大学(Regina)
      19. 士勃克大学(Sherbrooke)(外省学生)
      20. 布兰顿大学(Brandon)(理科)
      21. 马尼托巴大学(Manitoba)(理科)
      22. 拉哇大学(Laval)(外省学生)
      23. 纽芬兰纪念大学(Memorial)
      24. 新宾士威克大学(New Brunswick)
      25. 温尼伯格大学(Winnipeg)(理科)
      26. UQAM大学(UQAM)(外省学生)
      27. 爱德华王子岛大学(UPEI)
      28. 卡尔加里大学(Calgary)
      29. 主教大学(Bishop’s)(外省学生)
      30. 蒙特利尔大学(Montreal)(外省学生)
      31. 布里多尼岬大学(Cape Breton)
      32. 亚伯塔大学(Alberta)
      33. 尼伯斯大学(Nipissing)
      34. 莱斯桥大学(Lethbridge)
      35. 劳伦迪亚大学(Laurentian)
      36. 西安大略大学(Western)
      37. 康哥迪亚大学(Concordia)(外省学生)
      38. 渥太华大学(Ottawa)
      39. 麦克马斯特大学(McMaster)
      40. 圣玛丽大学(Saint Mary’s)
      41. 布罗克大学(Brock)
      42. 温莎大学(Windsor)
      43. 雷克海德大学(Lakehead)
      44. 戴豪斯大学(Dalhousie)(文科)
      45. 圣文森特山大学(Mount Saint Vincent)
      46. 女皇大学(Queen’s)
      47. 麦吉尔大学(McGill)(外省学生)
      48. 圣佛朗西斯西维尔大学(St. Francis Xavier)
      49. 约克大学(York)
      50. 卡尔顿大学(Carleton)
      51. 滑铁卢大学(Waterloo)
      52. 基辅大学(Guelph)
      53. 瑞尔森大学(Ryerson)
      54. 特伦特大学(Trent)
      55. 罗瑞尔大学(Wilfrid Laurier)
      56. 埃利森山大学(Mount Allison)
      57. 多伦多大学(Toronto)
      58. 戴豪斯大学(Dalhousie)(理科)
      59. 阿卡迪亚大学(Acadia)

2005-11-18 20:25:25 来自青青岛社区
雅思分类词汇:法庭与法律用语


criminal  n.罪犯 adj.刑事上的,犯罪的
victim  n.受害者
witness  n.目击证人 v.作证,目睹
witness box 证人席
arrest n.逮捕,检举,阻止 v.拘捕
courtroom  法庭
judge  法官
bench --it"s the place where the judge sits.  工作台
gavel --it"s the thing that the judge holds in court. 槌子
bailiff --it"s the person who protects the court.  执行官员
jury --they"re the people who decide guilty (adj.犯罪的) or innocent (adj.无罪的). 陪审团
jury box 陪审席
defendant --it"s a person who on trial. 被告
transcript  n.副本,记录
prosecrtion attorney 主控律师
defence attorney 辩方律师
fingerprints 手指模
penalty  n.罚款,惩罚,天谴,报应
tough penalties  很高的罚款
punishment   n.惩罚
sentence  n.宣判  v.宣判,判决
prison  n.监狱  v.囚禁,羁押
drug trafficker  犯毒的人
uneducated  adj.文盲的
replica   n.复制品,一样的东西
qualified   adj.有资格的,胜任的,合适的,可采纳的
weapon  n.武器,兵器
imprisonment   n.入狱,监禁,拘留
convict  adj.宣判有罪的 n.罪犯 v.宣判有罪
illegal  adj.非法的,犯法的
handcuff n.手铐  v.上手铐
baton  n.警棍,指挥棒
walkie-talkie  对讲机
a fine Cpunishment money  n.罚金 v.罚  adj.好的
behaviour  n.品行,举止,仪态
an immense bearing   极大的忍耐
feasible  adj. 可实行的,合理的
CRIMINAL(n.)-person                  
CRIME(n.)-action
A robber  盗贼,强盗                 
commits  v.犯罪               
robbery   盗窃(罪)
A murderer  杀人者                     
murder   谋杀(罪)
A burglar   夜贼                                            
burglary 夜盗(罪)
A thief     小偷                                          
theft     偷窃(罪)
An arsonist 纵火者                                             
arson     纵火(罪)
A rapist   强*犯                                                
rape      强*(罪)
A mugger 自背后袭击的盗匪(one of robber)                     
mugging   盗窃(罪)
A drug trafficker 毒犯                                       
drug trafficking 犯毒

2005-11-18 20:26:54 来自青青岛社区
雅思原版教材下载(文本+Mp3)

http://www.ielts.snt.ru/

2005-11-18 20:28:15 来自青青岛社区
雅思TASK1图表写作套句精选50句

1.the table shows the changes in the number of...over the period from...to...
该表格描述了在...年之...年间...数量的变化。
2.the bar chart illustrates that...
该柱状图展示了...
3.the graph provides some interesting data regarding...
该图为我们提供了有关...有趣数据。
4.the diagram shows (that)...
该图向我们展示了...
5.the pie graph depicts (that)....
该圆形图揭示了...
6.this is a cure graph which describes the trend of...
这个曲线图描述了...的趋势。
7.the figures/statistics show (that)...
数据(字)表明...
8.the tree diagram reveals how...
该树型图向我们揭示了如何...
9.the data/statistics show (that)...
该数据(字)可以这样理解...
10.the data/statistics/figures lead us to the conclusion that...
这些数据资料令我们得出结论...
11.as is shown/demonstrated/exhibited in the diagram/graph/chart/table...
如图所示...
12.according to the chart/figures...
根据这些表(数字)...
13.as is shown in the table...
如表格所示...
14.as can be seen from the diagram,great changes have taken place in...
从图中可以看出,...发生了巨大变化。
15.from the table/chart/diagram/figure,we can see clearly that...or it is clear/apparent from the chart that...
从图表我们可以很清楚(明显)看到...
16.this is a graph which illustrates...
这个图表向我们展示了...
17.this table shows the changing proportion of a & b from...to...
该表格描述了...年到...年间a与b的比例关系。
18.the graph,presented in a pie chart, shows the general trend in...
该图以圆形图形式描述了...总的趋势。
19.this is a column chart showing...
这是个柱型图,描述了...
20.as can be seen from the graph,the two curves show the flutuation of...
如图所示,两条曲线描述了...的波动情况。
21.over the period from...to...the...remained level.
在...至...期间,...基本不变。
22.in the year between...and...
在...年到...期间...
23.in the 3 years spanning from 1995 through 1998...
1995年至1998三年里...
24.from then on/from this time onwards...
从那时起...
25.the number of...remained steady/stable from (month/year) to (month/year).
...月(年)至...月(年)...的数量基本不变。
26.the number sharply went up to...
数字急剧上升至...
27.the percentage of...stayed the same between...and...
...至...期间...的比率维持不变。
28.the figures peaked at...in(month/year)
...的数目在...月(年)达到顶点,为...
29.the percentage remained steady at...
比率维持在...
30.the percentage of...is sightly larger/smaller than that of...
...的比例比...的比例略高(低)。
31.there is not a great deal of difference between...and...
...与...的区别不大。
32.the graphs show a threefold increase in the number of...
该图表表明...的数目增长了三倍。
33....decreased year by year while...increased steadily.
...逐年减少,而...逐步上升。
34.the situation reached a peak(a high point at) of[%].
...的情况(局势)到达顶(高)点,为...百分点。
35.the figures/situation bottomed out in...
数字(情况)在...达到底部。
36.the figures reached the bottom/a low point/hit a trough.
数字(情况)达到底部(低谷)。
37.a is ...times as much/many as b.
a是b的...倍。
38.a increased by...
a增长了...
39.a increased to...
a增长到...
40.high/low/great/small/ percentage.
比低高(低)
41.there is an upward trend in the number of...
...数字呈上升趋势。
42.a considerable increase/decrease occurred from...to...
...到...发生急剧上升。
43.from...to...the rate of decrease slow down.
从...到...,下降速率减慢。
44.from this year on,there was a gradual declinel reduction in the...,reaching a figure of...
从这年起,...逐渐下降至...
45.be similar to...
与...相似
46.be the same as...
与...相同
47.there are a lot similarities/differences between...and...
...与...之间有许多相似(不同)之处
48.a has something in common with b
a于b有共同之处。
49.the difference between a and b lies in...
a与b之间的差别在于...
50...(year)witnessed/saw a sharp rise in...
...年...急剧上升。  

2005-11-18 20:29:19 来自青青岛社区
GRE考试之数学部分术语总汇


代数部分
1.有关数学运算

add,plus加subtract减difference差multiply,times乘product积divide除 divisible可被整除的dividedevenly被整除dividend被除数,红利divisor因子,除数 quotient商remainder余数factorial阶乘power乘方radicalsign,rootsign根号 roundto四舍五入tothenearest四舍五入

2.有关集合

union并集proper subset真子集solution set解集

3.有关代数式、方程和不等式

algebraic term代数项like terms,similar terms同类项numerical coefficient数字系数literal coefficient字母系数inequality不等式 triangle inequality三角不等式range值域original equation原方程equivalent equation同解方程,等价方程linear equation线性方程(e.g.5x+6=22)

4.有关分数和小数

proper fraction真分数improper fraction假分数mixed number带分数vulgar fraction,common fraction普通分数simple fraction简分数complex fraction繁分数numerator分子denominator分母(least)common denominator(最小)公分母quarter四分之一decimal fraction纯小数infinite decimal无穷小数recurring decimal循环小数tenthsunit十分位

5.基本数学概念

arithmetic mean算术平均值weighted average加权平均值geometric mean几何平均数exponent指数,幂base乘幂的底数,底边cube立方数,立方体square root平方根cuberoot立方根common logarithm常用对数digit数字constant常数variable变量 inversefunction反函数complementary function余函数linear一次的,线性的 factorization因式分解absolute value绝对值,e.g.|-32|=32round off四舍五入

6.有关数论

natural number自然数positive number正数negative number负数odd integer,odd number 奇数even integer,even number偶数integer,whole number整数positive whole number正整数negative whole number负整数consecutive number连续整数rea lnumber,rational number实数,有理数irrational(number)无理数inverse倒数composite number合数 e.g.4,6,8,9,10,12,14,15……prime number质数e.g.2,3,5,7,11,13,15……注意:所有的质数(2除外)都是奇数,但奇数不一定是质数reciprocal倒数common divisor公约数multiple倍数(least)common multiple(最小)公倍数(prime)factor(质)因子common factor公因子 ordinaryscale,decimalscale十进制nonnegative非负的tens十位units个位mode众数median中数common ratio公比

7.数列

arithmetic progression(sequence)等差数列geometric progression(sequence)等比数列

8.其它approximate近似(anti)clockwise(逆)顺时针方向cardinal基数ordinal序数directproportion正比distinct不同的estimation估计,近似parentheses括号 proportion比例permutation排列combination组合table表格trigonometric function三角函数unit单位,位

几何部分

1.所有的角

alternate angle内错角corresponding angle同位角vertical angle对顶角central angle 圆心角interior angle内角exterior angle外角supplement aryangles补角complement   aryangle余角adjacent angle邻角acute angle锐角obtuse angle钝角right angle直角  round angle周角straight angle平角included angle夹角

2.所有的三角形

equilateral triangle等边三角形scalene triangle不等边三角形isosceles triangle等腰三角形right triangle直角三角形oblique斜三角形inscribed triangle内接三角形

3.有关收敛的平面图形,除三角形外

semicircle半圆

concentric circles同心圆quadrilateral四边形pentagon五边形hexagon六边形heptagon 七边形octagon八边形nonagon九边形decagon十边形polygon多边形parallelogram平行四边形equilateral等边形plane平面square正方形,平方rectangle长方形regular polygon正多边形rhombus菱形trapezoid梯形

4.其它平面图形

arc弧line,straight line直线line segment线段parallel lines平行线segment of a circle弧形

5.有关立体图形

cube立方体,立方数rectangular solid长方体regular solid/regular polyhedron正多面体  circular cylinder圆柱体cone圆锥sphere球体solid立体的

6.有关图形上的附属物

altitude高depth深度side边长circumference,perimeter周长radian弧度surface area   表面积volume体积arm直角三角形的股cros ssection横截面center of acircle圆心 chord弦radius半径angle bisector角平分线diagonal对角线diameter直径edge棱 face of a solid立体的面hypotenuse斜边included side夹边leg三角形的直角边 medianofatriangle三角形的中线base底边,底数(e.g.2的5次方,2就是底数)opposite直角三角形中的对边midpoint中点endpoint端点vertex(复数形式vertices)顶点tangent切线的transversal截线intercept截距

7.有关坐标

coordinate system坐标系rectangular coordinate直角坐标系origin原点abscissa横坐标  ordinate纵坐标numberline数轴quadrant象限slope斜率complex plane复平面

8.其它

plane geometry平面几何trigonometry三角学bisect平分circumscribe外切inscribe内切  intersect相交perpendicular垂直pythagorean theorem勾股定理congruent全等的  multilateral多边的

其它

1.单位类

cent美分penny一美分硬币nickel5美分硬币dime一角硬币dozen打(12个)score廿(20个)Centigrade摄氏Fahrenheit华氏quart夸脱gallon加仑(1gallon=4quart)yard码 meter米micron微米inch英寸foot英尺minute分(角度的度量单位,60分=1度) squaremeasure平方单位制cubicmeter立方米pint品脱(干量或液量的单位)

2.有关文字叙述题,主要是有关商业

intercalary year(leapyear)闰年(366天)common year平年(365天)depreciation折旧down   payment直接付款discount打折margin利润profit利润interest利息simple interest单利compounded interest复利dividend红利decrease to减少到decrease by减少了increase to增加到increase by增加了denote表示list price标价markup涨价per capita每人ratio比率retail price零售价tie打平

2005-11-18 20:30:12 来自青青岛社区
Task1 写作常识


一、图形种类及概述法:

泛指一份数据图表:a data graph/chart/diagram/illustration/table
饼图:pie chart
直方图或柱形图:bar chart / histogram
趋势曲线图:line chart / curve diagram
表格图:table
流程图或过程图:flow chart / sequence diagram
程序图:processing/procedures diagram

以下是一些较常用的描述用法
The table/chart diagram/graph shows (that)
According to the table/chart diagram/graph
As (is) shown in the table/chart diagram/graph
As can be seen from the table/chart/diagram/graph/figures,
figures/statistics shows (that)...
It can be seen from the figures/statistics
We can see from the figures/statistics
It is clear from the figures/statistics
It is apparent from the figures/statistics
table/chart/diagram/graph figures (that) ...
table/chart/diagram/graph shows/describes/illustrates how
......

阅卷考官经常是不会看那些图表的,因此文章必须逻辑清晰,如果描述得能令人在脑海里勾画出那个data chart,这篇task1无疑会达到8分的水平。开篇的第一句话可以是一句高度概括性的introduction(当然开门见山直接描述也是一种写法);这样做不仅使文章更趋于完美,而且可以达到凑字数的目的(但不要照抄题目,除非时间相当紧迫)。接下来另起一段开始进行描述(根据实际情况1-2段),这当中经常要连续使用非限定性定于从句,从而使得描述过程流畅、清晰。最后也可再另起一段进行简短的综述(并非必须)。上述的任何一个步骤都要遵循依据现有data进行客观描述的原则,任何推测性或议论性的内容写得再多、再精彩不仅不会加分,而且还会成为扣分的因素。


二、data的具体表达法

data在某一个时间段固定不变:fixed in time
在一系列的时间段中转变:changes over time
持续变化的data在不同情况下:
增加:increase / raise / rise / go up ...
减少:decrease / grow down / drop / fall ...
波动:fluctuate / rebound / undulate / wave ...
稳定:remain stable / stabilize / level off ...

最常用的两种表达法:
动词 + 副词形式(Verb+Adverb form)
形容词 + 名词形式(Adjective+Noun form)
  
1. Verb+Adverb form
The number of XXX
+increase/jump/rise/decrease/drop/fall/fluctuate...
+insignificantly/significantly/slightly/suddenly/rapidly/dramatically/sharply/steeply/steadily/gradually/slowly...
+from (第一时间) to (第二时间) / between (第一时间) and (第二时间)

2. Adjective+Noun form
There was a (very) sudden/rapid/dramatic/significant/sharp/steep/steady/gradual/slow/slight
+increase/jump/rise/decrease/drop/fall/fluctuation (注意:上述很多词不可用于修饰fluctuation)
+in the number of XXX from (第一时间) to (第二时间) / between (第一时间) and (第二时间)


描述稳定的data:
The number of XXX remained steady/stable from (第一时间) to (第二时间) / between (第一时间) and (第二时间)
The number of XXX stayed the same from (第一时间) to (第二时间) / between (第一时间) and (第二时间)
There was little change / hardly any change / no change in the number of XXX from from (第一时间) to (第二时间) / between (第一时间) and (第二时间)

描述不同状态的data
Noun form:
steady drop / sharp rise peak / dramatic fall / sharp drop
Verbal form:
(to) bottom out / (to) reach the bottom / (to) increase gradually / (to) reach a plateau / (to) remain steady

描述the highest point以及the lowest point
高点极值:
The monthly profit / The figures / The situation ...
+peaked in (月份/年) <准确时间点用at XXX> at XXX% / XXX(极点data)
或者reached a peak / a high point at XXX% / XXX(极点data)
低点极值:
XXX bottomed out / reached
+rock / the bottom / a low point
或者hit a trough

此外,在描述过程中还有很多的conjunctional words/sentences,最常用的固定搭配如下:
并列: as well as(句首/中), also, as well(句尾), either, neither, too, moreover, furthermore, in addition, additionally, besides, what's more, apart from ...
举例: for example, for instance, to illustrate, as an illustration, in particular, particularly, especially
事实: as a matter of fact, in fact, actually, as long as, so long as ...
雷同/近似:similarly, likewise(句首/尾), at the same time, equally ...
转折: however, whereas, nevertheless, nonetheless, though, although, even though, while, yet, on the contrary, contrarily, in contrast, conversely, on the other hand, unlikely, in stead (of), in spite of, despite of ...

原因与结果
1. cause-suggestion (几乎不常用)
since / now that ...; I hope that...
because of/on account of/owing to/thanks to + (doing) sth, I hope that...
2. cause-effect (较常用)
XXX lead to / bring about / result in/ account for ...
(一个句子), therefore / thus / hence / as a result / consequently / (and) so ...
3. effect-cause (较常用)
XXX be caused by / result from / be the result of / be the effect of / be the consequence of ...
(一个句子), because ...
it is adj. that ...
it is unimaginable that ...
it is undeniable that ...
it is interesting to discover that ...


三、其它相关常用词(组)

1. 主章开头
图表类型:table; chart; diagram; graph; column chart; pie graph
描述:show; describe; illustrate; can be seen from; clear; apparent; reveal; represent
内容:figure; statistic; number; percentage; proportion
2. 表示数据
一般:have 10%; at 10%; over 10%
最高(低)点:peaked; reached a peak / high point
bottomed out; reached the bottom
变化:recover 略有回升; increase; jump; rise/rose; climb
decrease; fall/fell; drop; decline; reduce
fluctuate 浮动,摇摆不定
remained steady/stable; stay the same; little/hardly any /no change
变化程度:sudden/suddenly 突然的,意外的
rapid/rapidly 迅速的,飞快的,险峻的
dramatic/dramatically 戏剧性的,生动的
significant/significantly 有意义的,重大的,重要的
sharp/sharply 锐利的,明显的,急剧的
steep/steeply 急剧升降的
steady/steadily 稳固的,坚定不移的
gradual/gradually 渐进的,逐渐的
slow/slowly 缓慢的,不活跃的
slight/slightly轻微的、略微地
stable/stably 稳定的
表示范围:from XXX to XXX; between XXX and XXX; for XXX to XXX多长时间直到
表示程度:almost adv. 几乎,差不多
nearly adv. 几乎,密切地
approximately adv. 近似的,大约
about adv. 附近, 大约,转向,左右,周围
just over 刚超过
over adv. 结束,越过,从头到尾
exactly adv. 正确地,严密地
precisely adv. 正好 精确地;清晰地
比例:20 per cent 20%
one in three 1/3
one out of every four 1/4
3. 其它在描述中的常用到的词
significant changes 图中一些较大变化
noticeable trend 明显趋势
during the same period 在同一时期
grow/grew 增长
distribute 分布,区别
unequally 不相等地
pronounced 明显的
average 平均
no doubt 无疑地
corresponding adj. 相应的,通讯的
represent vt. 阐述,表现
overall 总体上讲
except 除外
in the case of adv. 在...的情况下
in terms of / in respect of / regarding 在...方面
in contrast 相反,大不相同
in conclusion adv. 最后,总之
in comparison 相比之下
inversely adv. 相反地,倒转地
in general 通常,大体上,一般而言
range from
excessive adj. 过多的,过分的,额外
lower v.降低,跌落
elapse vi.(时间)过去,消逝
category n.种类
government policy 政府政策
market forces 市场规率
measure n. 尺寸,方法,措施 v.估量,调节
forecast n. 先见,预见 v. 预测

2005-11-18 20:32:21 来自青青岛社区
Task 2常用套句

下文中出现的 A,B, “...”(某事物), "sb"( somebody),
要在写作中要根据上下文进行适当替换.
开头:
When it comes to ..., some think ...
There is a public debate today that ...
A is a commen way of ..., but is it a wise one?
Recentaly the problem has been brought into focus.

提出观点:
Now there is a growing awareness that...
It is time we explore the truth of ...
Nowhere in history has the issue been more visible.

进一步提出观点:
... but that is only part of the history.
Another equally important aspect is ...
A is but one of the many effects. Another is ...
Besides, other reasons are...

提出假想例子的方式:
Suppose that...
Just imagine what would be like if...
It is reasonable to expect...
It is not surprising that...

举普通例子:
For example(instance),...
... such as A,B,C and so on (so forth)
A good case in point is...
A particular example for this is...

引用:
One of the greatest early writers said ...
"Knowledge is power", such is the remard of ...
"......". That is how sb comment ( criticize/ praise...).
"......". How often we hear such words like there.

讲故事
(先说故事主体),this story is not rare.
..., such delimma we often meet in daily life.
..., the story still has a realistic significance.

提出原因:
There are many reasons for ...
Why .... , for one thing,...
The answer to this problem involves many factors.
Any discussion about this problem would inevitably involves ...
The first reason can be obiviously seen.
Most people would agree that...
Some people may neglect that in fact ...
Others suggest that...
Part of the explanation is ...

进行对比:
The advantages for A for outweigh the disadvantages of...
Although A enjoys a distinct advantage ...
Indeed , A carries much weight than B when sth is concerned.
A maybe ... , but it suffers from the disadvantage that...

承上启下:
To understand the truth of ..., it is also important to see...
A study of ... will make this point clear

让步:
Certainly, B has its own advantages, such as...
I do not deny that A has its own merits.

结尾:
>From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw
the conclusion that ...
In summary, it is wiser ...
In short...
在作文中引用合适的名言警句,会给你的文章增色许多。这里收集了我本人喜爱的一些名言,可能会对你有用。我们使用引用的位置可以在开头结尾或正文段落中,
常见的使用形式如下:

One of the greatest early writers said ...
"Knowledge is power", such is the remard of ...
"......". That is how sb comment ( criticize/ praise...).
"......". How often we hear such words like there.

Useful quotations
逆境
by Robert Collier
In every adversity there lies the seed of an equivalent advantage. In every defeat there is a lesson showing you how to win the victory next time.
努力与成功
by Ann Landers
Opportunities are usually disguised as hard work, so most people don't recognize them.
坚持
by Ralph Waldo Emerson
No one can cheat you out of ultimate success but yourselves.

Confucius 孔子
Our greatest glory is not in never falling...
but in rising every time we fall.

坚持
Mother Teresa
To keep a lamp burning we have to keep putting oil in it.

Henry Ford
Nothing is particularly hard if you divide it inuo small jobs.

Winston Churchill
Never, never, never, never give up.

Albert Einstein
In uhe middle of difficulty lies opportunity.

努力与成功
by Crassus
Those who aim at great deeds must suffer greatly.
Thomas Edison
There is no substitute for hard work.

Leo Tolstoi
The strongest of all warriors are these two- Time and Patience.

Thomas Jefferson
I'm a great believer in luck,
and I find the harder I work...
the more I have of it.
Robert Collier
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day in and day out.

Ray A. Croc
Luck is a dividend of sweat. The more you sweat, the luckier you get.

实际经验与间接经验
You'll learn more about a road by traveling it...
than by consulting all the maps in the world.
动机与结果
Vince Lombardi
Winning isn't everything...
but wanting to win is.

John F. Kennedy
We choose to go!to the moon and other things , oot because they are easy, but because they are hard.

Thucydides
The strong do what they will.
The weak do what they must.

为人态度:
John Wooden
Talent is God given--Be Humble.
Fame is man given-- Be Thankful.
Conceit is self given --Be Careful.

行动:
Theodore Roosevelt
Do what you can , with what you have , with where you are.

Publilius Syrus Maxim
No one knows what he can do till he tries.

Terence
There is nothing so easy but that it becomes difficult when you do it reluctantly.

Thomas Fuller
A wise man turns chance into good fortune.

William Hazlitt
Prosperity is a great teacher;
adversity is a greater.

William Penn
No pains, no palm;
no thorns, no throne;
no gall , no glory;
no cross, no crown.

Will Rogers
Even if you're on the right track, you'll get run over... if you just sit there.

Opportunity rarely knocks on your door.
Knock rather on opportunity's door if you ardently wish to enter.

成功与失败
Vince Lombardi
It's not whether you get knocked down.
...It's whether you get up again.

Winston Churchill
An optimist sees an opportunity in every calamity;
a pessimist sees a calamity in every opportunity.

热情(年轻/年老)
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.

信心
James Allen
The will to do springs from the knowledge that we can do.

Samuel Johnson
Few things are impossible to diligence and skill.

Aughey
Lost time is never found again.

Voltaire
No problem can stand the assault of sustained thinking.

Napoleon
Victory belongs to the most persevering.

细心
Euipides
Leave no stone unturned.

计划与工作
Norman Vincent Peale
Plan your work for today and every day;
then work your plan.

Henry Ford
Failure is only the opportunity to more intelligently begin again.

Thomas Edison
I start where the last man left off.

理想与现实
What the mind of man can conceive and believe,
the mind of a man can achieve.

勤奋
Benjamin Franklin
Plough deep while sluggards sleep.

目标
Henry David Thoreau
In the lone run men hit only what they aim at.

幸运
Emily Dickinson
Luck is not chance...
It's toil...
Fortune's expensive smile is earned.

勤奋
Thomas Edison
Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration.
Useful Quotations

想象力
Albert Einstein
Imagination is more important than knowledge.

挑战:
Walter Begehot
The great pleasure in life is doing what people say you cannot do.

机会与准备
Abraham Lincoln
I will prepare and some day my chance will come.

信心与事实
Henry Ford
Whether you think you can or think you can't -- you are right.

English Proverb
Where there's a will there's a way.
There is no failure excepting no longer trying.
Luck is what happens when preparation meets opportunity

2005-11-18 20:33:26 来自青青岛社区
Task 2的段首和结尾填空式写法


段首句:
(一)对立观点命题形式的首句:
1. Many people do not doubt that A is superior to B , while others think  quite differently on the issue of _____. Personally, I stand on the side of A .
2. Some people say A , other people argue B . In a word , _____. But I cannot agree this point of view for many reasons.
3. There are different views concerning this topic . Some people like to CHOOSE A , some prefer to CHOOSE B . Personally , I prefer B . I think B has more advantages.
4. From my point of view , it is more advisable to CHOOSE A than to CHOOSE B . 5. Despite the fact that most people prefer A , I would like to choose B because the following reasons .
6. In general , I prefer to _____ .
7. As far as I am concerned , I would like to prefer _____ .
8. When it comes to _____ , most people tend to believe A . But others consider B as _____ .
9. When asked about _____ , the vast majority of people would support that A . But others regard B as _____ .
10. At the risk of address the issue too direct , I prefer A because I think that _____ .
11. When asked about _____ , many people give their opinions that _____ , but other people may see _____ differently .
12. When faced with _____ , quite a few would claim that _____ , but others , in contrast , deem _____ as _____ .
13. When inquired about _____ , the vast majority of people would like to _____ , but other people , who hold an opposite view , consider _____ as _____ .
14. When _____ is mentioned _____ , most people believe that _____ , but other people would rather think _____ as _____ .
15. While many people may stick to me idea that _____ , I would like to prefer _____ .

(二)单一观点式
A . Agree
1. One of the greatest writers once said that _____ . Now , it still has its significant realistic values .
2. I would follow the reasoning that _____ .
3. Many people advocate that _____ . They claim that _____ . My opinion is the same as theirs in the following reasons .
4. I totally agree with the statement that _____ . The reasons are presented below .
5. After pondering this question on many occasions , I finally reached the conclusion that _____ is something worthy to do and I cannot skip it .
6. my arguments for point are listed  as follows.
7. I agree with the above statement because _____ .
8. Nowhere in the world has the issue of _____ been so much debated like in our society .
9. I agree with the statement that _____ without reservation because _____ . 10. Thinking logically , I can only say that the title statement is valid because _____ .
11. I fully support the statement above because I am very sure that _____ .
12. Some may hold the opinion that AAA . But others have a negative attitude . As far as I am concerned , I agree that _____ .
13. Many one have the idea that AAA . However , many others disagree with this argument . But both side of the problem whether _____ are supported by good reasons .
14. Recently , it has been much debated over the problem of AAA . Those who object to AAA announce that _____ . But those who favor AAA utter a sonorous voice that _____ .
15. Recently , there is vehement discussion on the issue of _____ . Those who criticize _____ argue that _____ . They claim that _____ . But people who firmly advocate _____ , on the other hand , argue that _____ .
16. There is a much-debated problem today about _____ . Those who object to _____ argue that _____ . They are very sure about _____ . But people who prefer _____ , on the other hand , claim that _____ .

B . Disagree
1. Until recently , _____ was viewed as _____  . But people are taking a fresh look at it .
2. Recently , we often hear about _____ . But is it ?
3. These days , it is often heard about _____ . But is this really the truth ?
4. I feel such an attitude is negative , and that it can bring _____.
5. Some people argue as if it is a general truth that _____ . But to be frank , I cannot agree with them for the flowing reasons .
6. Despite the fact that many people believe that _____ , I doubt whether the argument can bear much analysis .
7. Although some people hold the opinion that _____ , I wonder whether the argument could bear close examination .
8. In the nationwide , discussion , many people argue that _____ . But I can say nothing but _____ .
9. Advocates of AAA proclaim that _____ , but I _____ .
10. Until  recently , _____ was regarded as _____ . But _____ .
11. Some people think that _____ , but I disagree with this opinion for numerous reasons , as presented below .
12. Now , it is increasingly mentioned that _____ . Such people think _____ . But I can only cast doubt on whether _____ .
13. Now , it is widely believed that _____ . These people think _____ . But I wonder if _____ .
14. I cannot totally the idea that _____ . Because , in my point of view , I believe _____ .
15. As a matter of fact , I support that _____ , but I cannot agree with the title statement .
16. Nowadays , it is widely held that _____ . People of this kind think _____ .But I doubt whether _____ .     

结尾句:
1. Taking into account of all these factors , we may reach the conclusion that _____ .
2. All reliable evidences point to one saying , that is _____ .
3. For the reasons presented above , I strongly commit to the notion that _____ .   
4. While it is true that _____ , I think that _____ .
5. Given the factors I have just outlined , I can only say that _____ .
6. This is not to say that _____ . But in terms of _____ , it is _____ .
7. Therefore , it is easy to draw the conclusion that _____ .
8. Recognizing the fact that _____ should drive us to conclude that _____ .
9. To put all into a nutshell , I _____ .
10. In a word , I support the statement that it is better to _____ because


2005-11-18 20:34:18 来自青青岛社区
Task 2 起始和扩展段落的句式

  
1.起始段首句常用句式
A proverb says:"..." 有句谚语说:“...”

As the proverb says:"..." 如谚语说:“...”

Everybody knows that... 每个人都知道...

Generally speaking... 一般说来...

It can be easily proved that... 很容易证明...

It goes without saying that... 不用说...

It is quite clear that...because... 很明显...,因为...

It is often said that... 人们常说...

Many people often ask this question:"...?" 许多人常问这个问题:“...?”

It is ture that... ...是真实的

No one can deny that... 谁也不能否认...

One thing which is equally important to the above mentioned is... 与上述同样重要的一件事是...

The chief reason why... 为什么...的主要原因是...

We must recognize that... 我们必须承认...

There is no doubt that... 无疑...

I'm of the opinion that... 我认为...

In my point of view... 在我看来...

This can be expressed as follows... 这可以从以下几点说明...

The reasons are presented below... 原因例举如下...

To take... for an example... 以...为例...

Therefore we should realize that... 因此我们应该了解...

We have reasons to believe that... 我们有理由相信...

Now that we know that... 既然我们知道...

What is more serious is that... 更严重的是...

Anyway,I agree with the idea of... 不管怎样,我同意...

I side with the latter opinion... 我同意后一个观点...

2.推展段首句常用句式
Another special consideration in this case is that... 对这个问题的另一考虑是...

Besides,we should not neglect that... 除此之外,我们还不能忽视...

But it is a pity that... 但遗憾的是...

But the problem is not so simple,therefore... 然而问题并非如此简单,因此...

However,... 然而...

Others may find this to be ture,but I do not,I believe that... 在别人看来可能是对的,但我个人并不认为如此,我认为...

On the other hand,... 另一方面...

Perhaps you'll question why... 也许你会问为什么...

There is certain amount of truth in this,but we still have a problem... 尽管大量事实如此,但我们还有一个疑问...

Though we are in basic agreement with... 虽然基本上我们同意...

What seems to be the trouble is... 似乎困难是在...

Yet difference will be found,what is why I feel that... 然而其中仍有差别,这也正是我们为什么认为...

So long as you regard this as reasonable,you may... 只要你认为这合理,你就可以...

...should be put in the first place. ...应放在首要位置

Next,another factor we must consider is that... 接下来,我们必须考虑的另一因素是...

The main reason that can be seen by everyone is that... 每个人都注意到,最主要的原因是...

What is also with noticing is that... 另一个值得注意的是...

3.结尾段首句常用句式
In a word... 总而言之...

In conclusion... 由此得出结论...

On account of this we can find that... 由此我们可以知道...

The result is depend on... 结果视...而定

Therefore,the findings reveal the following information... 因此,这些发现揭示了以下信息...

Thus,this is the reason why we must... 因此,这就是我们为什么必须...

To sum up... 总而言之...

第六部分:写作常用词汇及词组
表层进
first, firstly to begin with
second, secondly to start with
third, thirdly what's more
also and then
and equally important
besides in addition
further in the first place
still furthermore
last last but not the least
next besides
too moreover
finally

表举例
for example for instance
to illustrate as an illustration
after all  

表解释
as a matter of fact frankly speaking
in this case namely
in other words  

表总结
in summary in a word
in brief in conclusion
to conclude in fact
indeed in short
in other words of course
it is true specially
namely in all
that is to summarize
thus as has been said
altogether in other words
finally in simpler terms
in particular that is
on the whole to put it differently
therefore  

表强调
of course indeed
above all most important
emphasis certainly in fact

表让步
still nevertheless
in spite of all the same
even so after all
concession granted naturally
of course  

表比较
in comparison likewise
similarly equally
however likewise
in the same way  

表转折
by contrast although
at the same time but
in contrast nevertheless
notwithstanding on the contrary
on the other hand otherwise
regardless still
though yet
despite the fact that even so
even though for all that
however in spite of
instead  

表时间
after a while afterward
again also
and then as long as
at last at length
at that time before
besides earlier
eventually finally
formerly further
furthermore in addition
in the first place in the past
last lately
meanwhile moreover
next now
presently second
shortly simultaneously
since so far
soon still
subsequently then
thereafter too
until until now
when  

英语写作常用词汇及词组

表层进
first, firstly to begin with
second, secondly to start with
third, thirdly what's more
also and then
and equally important
besides in addition
further in the first place
still furthermore
last last but not the least
next besides
too moreover
finally

表举例
for example for instance
to illustrate as an illustration
after all  

表解释
as a matter of fact frankly speaking
in this case namely
in other words  

表总结
in summary in a word
in brief in conclusion
to conclude in fact
indeed in short
in other words of course
it is true specially
namely in all
that is to summarize
thus as has been said
altogether in other words
finally in simpler terms
in particular that is
on the whole to put it differently
therefore  

表强调
of course indeed
above all most important
emphasis certainly in fact

表让步
still nevertheless
in spite of all the same
even so after all
concession granted naturally
of course  

表比较
in comparison likewise
similarly equally
however likewise
in the same way  

表转折
by contrast although
at the same time but
in contrast nevertheless
notwithstanding on the contrary
on the other hand otherwise
regardless still
though yet
despite the fact that even so
even though for all that
however in spite of
instead  

表时间
after a while afterward
again also
and then as long as
at last at length
at that time before
besides earlier
eventually finally
formerly further
furthermore in addition
in the first place in the past
last lately
meanwhile moreover
next now
presently second
shortly simultaneously
since so far
soon still
subsequently then
thereafter too
until until now
when

2005-11-18 20:35:14 来自青青岛社区
托福语法攻略


托福语法攻略

有个好友最近语法做的总是没有头绪,我很为他着急,于是就写个粗略的总结。我想很多T友 在做语法题的时候也是不得要领,所以我将自己的总结贴出来与大家分享,本人绝不是什么 牛人,所以总结也难免会有错误之处,请谅解。我开始做题的时候也是不着边际的乱,但做 到了一定程度后,就找到门路了,所以,请大家不要担心,我们都会做好的。我的时间有 限,所以只写了一部分,(其实这个总结我是想考试后整理的)现在只写了一点,考试后我 会把自己所有的经验全部写出来,希望对T友们能有所帮助。

  并不是你非限定性和限定性定语从句没有搞清楚,而是你还没有掌握做TOEFL语法题的方法,做TOEFL语法,最重要的是分析句子结构,而什么样的结构是正确的,你必需要知道。

  象这些题,你首先看句子结构,是单句还是复句,成分是否完整。单句肯定只有一个谓语。 一个句子有且只能有一个谓语,如果已经有一个谓语,就不能再出现第二个。如果一定要有 另一个谓语,那么则必须有连词,关系代词,关系副词。换句话说,一个句子如果有连词, 关系代词,关系副词则有两个谓语,两个分句分别有自己的谓语。有一个连词,则两个谓 语。有两个连词则应有三个谓语,以此类推。

  空格处的成分分析,先看空格前后是否有完整的句子,如果有完整的句子,那么空格处就应 该是同位语,状语从句,分词等修饰成分。那么接下来就要知道,什么能够构成同位语,什 么能构成状语。比如名词短语可以作同位语,分词结构可以用状语等。看选项,如果已经有 了一个句子,那么所有选项中又出现了谓语却没有连词,关系代词,关系副词的肯定就是错 的,而反过来,有连词,关系代词,关系副词的却没有谓语的也是错的。因为前面已经说 了,一个句子只能有一个谓语,而如果要有第二个就必有连词,关系代词,关系副词,而有 了连词,关系代词,关系副词,则就要有与之相配的谓语。

  一些小的细节也必需要了解。比如,词性,及物动词必有宾语,如果没有宾语,肯定是以过 去分词形式存在,如果过去分词做谓语,则其前面必有be动词。只有及物动词才有被动语 态,而大多数及物动词在变成被动语态后就不能再接宾语,只有能接双宾语的及物动词才可 以再接宾语。如:give, consider,provide等。

还有象上次讲过的这个

不定代词+of +限定词+名词

其中 ,不定代词是指:much, many, little, a little, few, a few , both , all , none, some, any ,either, neither.

限定词是指:冠词,代词,所有格。

这种形式中,of +限定词 必须同时省略或是同时存在,如:

most books; most of my books这是对的。

all/both+(of)+限定词+名词

all of my books or all my books 是对的,也就是说,这里of 是可以省略的。

而这种形式:不定代词+of+名词,永远都是错的!!!!


A:动名词 是动词加ing形式,一定程度上做名词看待。动名词可以作动词或介词的宾语 B:分词分为现在分词和过去分词。 过去分词后不能直接宾语。如被动语态后的过去分词。 现在分词可直接接宾语,现在分词放在名词之后作其定语。

  这些小细节一定要掌握。

  而更重要的是,很多人对过去分词是否是谓语的搞不清楚。如: dedicated to raising和dedicted raising,你能告诉我哪个过分是谓语,而哪个不是 吗? dedicated to raising就是非谓语 dedicted raising就是谓语

  请你记住以下的总结:

  Vted+宾语 谓语 Vted 非谓语 Be+ Vted 谓语 Be+ Vted+宾语 非谓语

  所谓的Vted就是过去分词,是及物动词,dedicated to raising为什么是非谓语?因为我说 过,及物动词必有宾语,dedicated后没有宾语,如果加了宾语,就象这个dedicted raising,此时它就是谓语动词了。

  By 1872 the US had 70 engineering colleges, ( ) astonishing expansion credited laegely to the MA of 1862. A because B an C to which D was
我想你没有选对肯定是credited这个过去分词你没有搞清楚它是谓语还是非谓语。实际上, 它是个非谓语,逗号后是个过分修饰的名词短语。前面是个完整的句子,好了,A because连 词,而没有与之相配的谓语,不对。C to which也没有与之相配的谓语,错。D没有连词却有个谓语,错。
如果你不能分析出credited的是非谓语,你肯定永远做不对。

  一定要记住上面的总结,真的很重要。

  还有就是一些小知识点了,比如固定搭配,副词可修饰副词,形容词,句子,但不能修饰名 词。among放在句首后面的谓语与主语要倒装,so 放于句首要倒装,介词引导的表地点,方 位的状语提前到句首要倒装等。How在TOEFL中只作连词。单个形容词修饰名词放在名词前, 而形容词短语修饰名词放在名词后。 如:beautiful girl, stage bare of scenery,其中bare of scenery为形容词短语后置作 stage的定语。过去 分词要想作名词的定语必须后置。

  总之,做语法题一定要分析句子结构,95%题不用读句意都能做出来。所谓句子结构,就是找主谓宾,定状补都是修饰成分。其次就是了解什么成分能做定状补。 下次做题时就按这种方法,肯定对你有益处。

  meigui注: 本帖有些内容时我上新东方语法时,Tom老师讲的。只时很多语法知识在我上语法课之前我就已经了解的。所以并没有注明有Tom 老师的.

2005-11-18 20:36:45 来自青青岛社区
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